Viro Final I

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HLW
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117929
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Viro Final I
Updated:
2011-11-19 16:52:05
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Viro Final I
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  1. What viruses belong to the Orbivirus genus (Reoviridae)?
    • African Horse Sickness
    • Blue Tongue
  2. How is African Horse Sickness transmitted?
    Culicoides spp (insect vector)
  3. What are the four forms of African Horse Sickness (4)?
    • Peracute (Pulmonary)
    • Subacute Edematous (Cardiac)
    • Acute (mixed)
    • Horse sickness fever
  4. What clinical signs are seen in the peracute (3-5 days incubation) form of African Horse Sickness (4)?
    • Fever
    • Respiratory distress
    • Spasmodic coughing
    • Frothy, serofibrinous fluid exuding from the nostrils
  5. In what animals is the peracute (pulmonary) form of african horse sickness seen in (2)?
    • Completely susceptible animals with highly virulent virus strains
    • Animals that are worked during the febrile stage of the disease
  6. What clinical signs are seen in the subacute edematous (7-14 days incubation) form of African horse sickness(4)?
    • Fever
    • Edematous swelling of neck, thorax, brisket, etc
    • Petechial hemorrhage on ventral tongue
    • Death
  7. In what animals is the subacute (cardiac) form of african horse sickness seen in?
    Animals infected with virus strains of low virulence
  8. What are the clinical signs seen in the acute (mixed) form of african horse sickness(3)?
    • Pulmonary/Edematous swellings
    • Cardiac failure
    • Death (80%)
  9. What clinical signs are seen in horse sickness fever (5-14 days incubation) (5)?
    • Fever
    • Anorexia
    • Depression
    • Congestion
    • +HR
  10. In what animals is horse sickness fever seen in?
    • Partially immune animals
    • Resistant species such as donkeys and zebras
  11. From what tissue is African horse sickness virus isolated from?
    • Blood (Febrile stage)
    • Lung, lymph nodes, and spleen (Necropsy)
  12. How is African horse sickness diagnosed (4)?
    • 2-6 day old mice inoculated intracerebrally
    • Neutralization assays in mice or cell culture
    • ELISA
    • PCR
  13. How is African horse sickness prevented (2)?
    • Live attenuated vaccine (may cause neurological signs)
    • Inactivated vaccine not as good
  14. What animals are the host for blue tongue virus (2)?
    • Sheep
    • Other ruminants
  15. Where does Blue tongue virus replicate?
    Cytoplasm
  16. How is Blue tongue virus transmitted?
    Culicoides spp. (insect vector)
  17. What are the clinical signs of blue tongue infection (7)?
    • Fever
    • Depression
    • Oral ulcers
    • Purple-blue discoloration of tongue
    • Coronary band hemorrhage
    • Abortion
    • Death
  18. From what tissues is blue tongue virus isolated from?
    Buffy coat during acute stage
  19. How is blue tongue virus infection diagnosed (3)?
    • Chicken embryos or cell culture
    • ELISA
    • PCR
  20. How is blue tongue virus infection prevented?
    Attenuated vaccines (several disadvantages)
  21. What are some disadvantages of the attenuated vaccine for blue tongue virus (3)?
    • Associated with fetal deaths and cerebral abnormalities in sheep
    • Emergence of genetic reassortments
    • Culicoides spp could revert vaccine to virulent virus
  22. What virus causes a fatal disease characterized by extensive hemorrhage in deer of the US and Canada?
    Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease
  23. How is epizootic hemorrhagic disease transmitted?
    Culicoides spp. (insect vector)
  24. What clinical signs are seen in an epizootic hemorrhagic disease infection (6)?
    • Loss of appetite
    • Fever
    • Uncousciousness
    • Shock-like state
    • Prostration
    • Death
  25. From what tissues is epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus isolated from (6)?
    • Blood
    • Liver
    • Spleen
    • Lung
    • Kidney
    • Heart
  26. How is epizootic hemorrhagic disease diagnosed (2)?
    • Cell culture
    • Chicken embryo
  27. What virus infects cattle, has two major genotypes (1 & 2), and two biotypes within each genotype (cytopathic and non-cytopathic)?
    Bovine Viral Diarrhea
  28. What viruses belong to the Flaviviridae family (6)?
    • Bovine viral diarrhea
    • Border disease virus
    • Classical swine fever virus
    • Japanese encephalitis virus
    • St. Louis encephalitis virus
    • West Nile virus
  29. What are the two clinically different syndromes seen in Bovine Viral Diarrhea?
    • Bovine viral diarrhea
    • Mucosal disease
  30. What form of bovine viral diarrhea is an acute epizootic infection of susceptible animals?
    Bovine viral diarrhea
  31. What form of bovine viral diarrhea is sporadic and occurs in persistently infected cattle in enzootically infected herds?
    Mucosal disease
  32. What are the clinical signs of a postnatal infection of bovine viral diarrhea in non-pregnant cattle (5)?
    • Biphasic fever
    • Diarrhea
    • Nasal and ocular discharge
    • Ulcers on muzzle, lips, oral cavity
    • Thrombocytopenia
  33. What are the clinical signs of a bovine viral diarrhea infection in pregnant cows (3)?
    • Embryonic death and resorption
    • Abortion/Mummification/Stillbirth
    • Congenital defects
  34. What are the poss outcomes if a cow and fetus is infected with non-cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus during early pregnancy (3)?
    • Cow becomes immune
    • Fetus develops tolerance with no antibody response
    • Super infection later on in life possible
  35. What are the clinical signs associated with an acute persistent infection of bovine viral diarrhea in calves and mucosal disease (5)?
    • Fever
    • Leukopenia
    • Diarrhea/Dehydration
    • Erosive lesions of the mouth and nares
    • Death in a few days
  36. What are the clinical signs associated with a chronic persistent infection of bovine viral diarrhea in calves and mucosal disease (4)?
    • Intermittent diarrhea
    • Gradual wasting
    • Lameness
    • Eruptive lesions on the skin of interdigital cleft
  37. From what tissue is bovine viral diarrhea virus isolated from (2)?
    • Blood
    • Nasal swab and tissue
  38. How is bovine viral diarrhea infection diagnosed (4)?
    • Viral RNA detection in tissues
    • Detection of antigens in tissue
    • Four fold rise in antibody titer in paired samples over 2-3 weeks will determine recent infection
    • Immunohistochemistry test
  39. How is bovine viral diarrhea infection prevented (2)?
    • Live and attenuated vaccines
    • Remove positive animals from herd
  40. What disease is considered a congenital disease in lambs that is the cause of abnormal (hairy) wool growth, tremors, and can also infect cattle and goats?
    Border Disease (HairyShaker disease)
  41. If a sheep is infected with Border disease virus during the first 10-30 days of gestations, what may happen?
    Fetal death (expulsion, resorption, mummification)
  42. If a sheep is infected with Border disease virus after 80 days of gestation, what may happen?
    Viral clearance without disease
  43. What are some pathological lesions associated with border disease in newborn lambs (5)?
    • Congenital tremors
    • Necrosis of affected brain
    • Hydraencephaly
    • Porencephaly
    • Cerebellar dysplasia
  44. How is Border disease diagnosed?
    Detect antigen by immunohistochemical methods in tissues of lambs
  45. How is Border disease prevented?
    BVDV vaccines are used sometimes
  46. What are the different viruses that cause equine encephalitis?
    • Eastern equine encephalitis
    • Western equine encephalitis
    • Venezuelan equine encephalitis
  47. Which animals are dead-end hosts for EEE, WEE, VEE?
    • Horses
    • Humans
  48. What is the natural reservoir for EEE, WEE, VEE (2)?
    • Birds
    • Mosquitoes
  49. What are the different fatality rates for EEE, WEE, VEE?
    • EEE (50-90%)
    • WEE (20-40%)
    • VEE (50-80%)
  50. What are the clinical signs of equine encephalitidies (8)?
    • Fever
    • Anorexia
    • Depression
    • Impaired vision
    • Teeth grinding
    • Circling
    • Paralysis
    • Convulsions and death
  51. How does EEE, WEE or VEE viruses enter the host?
    Mosquito bite
  52. How is equine encephalitidies diagnosed (9)?
    • Clinical signs/Location of horse/Season
    • Virus isolation from brain
    • PCR
    • Immunofluorescence
    • Suckling mouse
    • Cell culture
    • Paired serum samples
    • ELISA
    • Complement fixation test

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