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How is EEE, WEE, or VEE infection prevented?
Do horses make a full recover from equine encephalitis viruses?
No, permanent neurological damage
What is the vector of West Nile Virus?
Which animals are infected by West Nile Virus (3)?
What clinical signs are seen in animals infected with west nile virus (3)?
- Flu-like symptoms
- Neurological effects
How is West Nile Virus infection diagnosed (7)?
- Virus isolation
- Complement fixation test
- Plaque Neutralization test
How is West Nile virus infection prevented (3)?
- Control mosquitoes
- Recombinant (canarypox virus vectored) vaccine
- West Nile-Innovator DNA vaccine
What animals are affected by Japanese encephalitis (mosquito borne disease) (4)?
- Abortions in pigs
How is Japanese encephalitis diagnosed (4)?
- Virus isolation (unweaned mice)
- Cell culture of chicken embryo and vero cells
- Serology (Virus neutralization, hemagglutination inhibition, complement fixation, IgM and IgG in CSF)
How is Japanese encephalitis infection prevented (2)?
- Control mosquitoes
- Inactivated and attenuated vaccines
What are the four coronavirus disease patterns in swine (4)?
- Transmissible gastroenteritis
- Respiratory disease
- Porcine epidemic diarrhea
- Vomiting and wasting disease
How is transmissable gastroenteritis transmitted in pigs (2)?
What are the clinical signs of transmissible gastroenteritis infection in suckling piglets (4)?
- Profuse watery diarrhea
- Excessive thirst
- (almost 100% mortality)
What are the clinical signs of transmissible gastroenteritis infeciton in weaners and grower pigs (3)?
- Watery diarrhea
- (Mortality is low)
How is transmissible gastroenteritis infection diagnosed (5)?
- Clinical signs
- Immunofluoresence or immunoperoxidase
- Virus isolation from thyroid or testicle cells
- Virus neutralization
How is transmissible gastroenteritis controlled (2)?
- Vaccination of naturally immune sows
- Planned infection of pregnant sows 2-4 weeks before farrowing
Is there a vaccine available for Porcine Respiratory Corona virus?
How is porcine respiratory corona virus infection diagnosed (2)?
- Virus isolation from primary cell culture
- Demonstration of antibodies
What virus causes vomiting and wasting disease in swine?
Porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus
What are the clinical signs of porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus infection in piglets under 2 weeks of age (5)?
- Muscle tremors
What causes vomiting in a procine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus infection?
Virus replication in the ganglion distale vagi
What causes wasting in a procine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus infection?
Neurological disturbances of vomition center
How is a porcine hemagglutination encephalomyelitis virus infection diagnosed (2)?
- Virus isolation in primary swine cell culture
- Hemagglutination test
How is porcine hemagglutination encephalomyelitis virus infection prevented (2)?
What virus causes Winter dysentery in cattle?
Bovine corona virus
How is winter dysentery transmitted?
What are the clinical signs of winter dysentery (5)?
- Diarrhea +/-Blood
- Marked drop in milk production
How is winter dysentery diagnosed (2)?
- Fecal samples by EM
- Test serum samples taken 8 weeks apart
How is winter dysentery prevented in cattle (3)?
- Isolation of newly introduced cattle for 2 weeks
- No vaccine
Combined infection of canine coronavirus and what other virus causes a serious disease in dogs?
How is canine coronavirus transmitted?
What are the clinical signs of canine coronavirus infection (3)?
How is a canine coronavirus infection diagnosed?
Viral particles in feces by electron microscopy
How is canine coronavirus infection prevented?
Vaccine given to puppies and dogs at high risk of exposure
What is the cause of feline infectious peritonitis?
Feline enteric coronavirus (FCoV)
How is FCoV transmitted?
What percent of FCoV affected cats develop Feline infectious peritonitis?
What disease is the result of an immune-mediated reaction initiated by virus within macrophages, antiviral antibodies, and complement?
Feline infectious peritonitis
What are the three forms of feline infectious peritonitis?
- Effusive, exudative wet form
- Non-effusive, non-exudative, dry granulomatous form
- Mixed form
What are the clinical signs of feline infectious peritonitis (8)?
- +/- Icteric
- Enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes
- Irregular kidneys
- Nodular irregularities in the viscera
- Ocular lesions
- Neurological signs
How is FIP diagnosed (4)?
- Rivalta test
- Antibody measurement
- Reverse transcriptase PCR
How is FIP infection prevented (2)?
- Temperature sensitive mutant vaccine
- Intranasal injection
What organ systems does infectious bronchitis affect in chickens (2)?
- Urogenital tract
What are the clinical signs of infectious bronchitis virus infection in 1-4 week old chickens (5)?
- Tracheal rales
- Nasal discharge
- Hypoplasia of oviduct
What organs does infectious bronchitis virus cause the most damage to (3)?
How is infectious bronchitis virus diagnosed (5)?
- Virus isolation in chicken embryos
- Direct immunofluorescence
- Electron microscopy
- Nucleic acid analysis
How is infectious bronchitis virus infection prevented?
Attenuated live vaccines
How is turkey coronavirus transmitted?
What are the clinical signs of a turkey coronavirus infection (4)?
- Loss of appetite
- Watery diarrhea
- Atrophy of cloacal bursa
How is turkey coronavirus infection diagnosed (6)?
- Virus isolation in chicken embryo
- Immunoperoxidase for antigen
- Electron Microscopy
How can turkey coronavirus infection be prevented/eliminated (3)?
- No vaccine
- Must depopulate and clean
- Keep free of birds for 3-4 weeks