Med Term ch. 11

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  1. electrolytes
    Mineral salts (sodium, potassium, and calcium) that carry an electrical charge in solution
  2. filtrate
    fluid that passes from the blood through the capillary walls of the glomeruli of the kidney
  3. nitrogenous wastes
    products of cellular metabolism that contains nitrogen
  4. peritoneum
    serous membrane that lines the abdominopelivic cavity and covers most of the organs within the cavity
  5. semen
    flued containing sperm and secretions from the prostate and other structures of the male reproductive system; also called seminal fluid
  6. testosterone
    androgenic hormone responsibile for the development of the male sex organs, including the penis, testicles, scrotum, and prostate
  7. cyst/o
  8. glomerul/o
  9. lith/o
    stone, calculus
  10. meat/o
    opening, meatus
  11. nephro/o
  12. pyel/o
    renal pelvis
  13. ur/o
    urine, urinary tract
  14. ureter/o
  15. urethr/o
  16. andr/o
  17. balan/o
    glans penis
  18. epididym/o
  19. orch/o
    testis (plural, testes)
  20. perine/o
    perineum (area between scrotum [or vulva in in the female] and anus)
  21. prostat/o
    prostate gland
  22. spermat/o
    sprematozoa, sperm cells
  23. varic/o
    dilated vein
  24. vas/o
    vessel; vas deferens; duct
  25. vesicul/o
    seminal vesicle
  26. albumin/o
    albumin, protein
  27. azot/o
    nitrogenous compounds
  28. crypt/o
  29. gonad/o
    gonads, sex glands
  30. kal/i
    potassium (an electrolyte)
  31. keton/o
    ketone bodies (acids and acetones)
  32. noct/o
  33. olig/o
    scanty (decreased production)
  34. py/o
  35. -cide
  36. -ism
  37. -spadias
    slit, fissure
  38. -uria
  39. anuria
    absence of urine production or urinary output
  40. azotemia
    retention of excessive amounts of nitrogenous compounds (urea, creatinine, and uric acid) in the blood; also called uremia
  41. bladder neck obstruction (BNO)
    blockage at base of the bladder that reduces or prevents urine from passing into the urethra
  42. chronic renal failure
    renal failure that occurs over a period of years, in which the kidneys lose their ability to maintain volume and composition of body fluids with normal dietary intake
  43. dysuria
    painful or difficult urination, commonly described as a "burning sensation" while urinating
  44. end-stage renal disease (ESRD)
    condition is which kidney function is permanently lost
  45. enuresis
    involuntary discharge of urine; also called incontinence
  46. fistula
    abnormal passage from a hollow organ to the surface or from one organ to another
  47. frequency
    voiding urine at frequent intervals
  48. hesitancy
    involuntary delay in initiating urination
  49. hydronephrosis
    abnormal dilation of the renal pelvis and the calyces of one or both kidneys due to pressure from accumulated urine that cannot flow past an obstruction in the urinary tract
  50. nephrotic syndrome
    loss of large amounts of plasma protein, usually albumin by way of urine due to increased permeability of glomerular membrane
  51. nocturia
    excessive or frequent urination after going to bed
  52. oliguria
    diminished capacity to form and pass urine, resulting in inefficient excretion of the end products of metabolism
  53. polycystic kidney disease (PKD)
    inherited disease in which sacs of fluid called cysts develop in the kidneys
  54. urgency
    feeling of the need to void immediately
  55. vesicoureteral reflux (VUR)
    disorder caused by the failure of urine to pass thru the ureters to the bladder, usually due to impairment of the valve between the ureter and bladder or obstruction in the ureter
  56. Wilms tumor
    rapidly developing malignant neoplasm of the kidney that usually occurs in children
  57. anorchidism
    congenital absence of one or both testes; also called anorchia or anorchism
  58. aspermia
    failure to form or ejaculate semen
  59. balanitis
    inflammation of the skin covering the glans penis
  60. epispadias
    malformation in which the urethra opens on the dorsum of the penis
  61. erectile dysfunction (ED)
    repeated inability to initiate or maintain an erection for sexual intercourse
  62. hydrocele
    accumulation of serous fluid in a saclike cavity, especially the testes and associated structures
  63. hypospadias
    developmental anormaly in which the urethra opens on the underside of the penis or, in extreme cases, on the perineum
  64. phimosis
    stenosis or narrowing of preputial orifice so that the foreskin cannot be retracted over the glans penis
  65. sterility
    inability to produce offspring; in the male, inability to fertilize the ovum
  66. varicocele
    swelling and distention of veins of the spermatic cord
  67. digital rectal examination (DRE)
    screening test that assesses the rectal wall surface for lesions of abnormally firm areas that might indicate cancer
  68. electromyography (EMG)
    measures the contraction of the muscles that control urination using electrodes placed in the rectum and urethra
  69. testicular self-examination
    self-examination of the testes for abnormal lumps or swelling in the scrotal sac
  70. cystoscopy (cysto)
    endoscopy of the urinary bladder for evidence of pathology, obtaining biopsies of tumors or other growths, and removal of polyps
  71. nephroscopy
    endoxcopy of the kidney(s) using a specialized, three-channel endoscope that enables visualization and irrigation of the kidney
  72. urethroscopy
    endoscopy of the urethra using a specialized endoscope, typically for lithotripsy or TURP
  73. blood urea nitrogen (BUN)
    test that determines the amount of urea nitrogen, a waste product of protein metabolism, present in a blood sample
  74. culture and sensitivity (C&S)
    test that determines the causative organism of a disease and how the organism responds to various antibiotics
  75. prostate-specific antigen (PSA)
    blood test used to detect prostatic disorders, especially prostatic cancer
  76. semen analysis
    test that analyzes a semen sample for volume, sperm count, motility, and morphology to evaluate fertility of verify sterilization after a vasectomy
  77. cystography
    radiographic examination of the urinary bladder using a contrast medium
  78. cystometrography
    procedure that assesses volume and pressure in the bladder at various stages of filling using saline and a contrast medium introduced into the bladder through a catheter
  79. intravenous pyelography (IVP)
    radiographic examination of the kidneys, and urinary tract after IV injection of a contrast medium; also called excetrory urography (EU)
  80. kidney, ureter; bladder (KUB) radiography
    radiographic examination to determine the location, size, and shape of the kidneys in relationship to other organs in the abdominopelvic cavity and to identify abnormalities of the urine system
  81. nuclear scan
    • radiology test in which radioactive materials called tracers are introduced into the patient and a specialized camera, which acts as a radiation detector, produces images by recording the emitted tracers
    • -imaging test where a monitor is used to track a radioactive substance as it passes thru the kidney
  82. voiding cystourethrography
    radiological examination of the bladder and urethra performed before, during, and after voiding usinga a contrast medium to enhance imaging
  83. dialysis
    medical procedure used to filter toxic substances from the patient's bloodstream, such as excess electrolytes and nitrogenous wastes
  84. hemodialysis
    method of removing waste substances from the blood by shunting it from the body, passing it thru an artificial kidney machine where it is filtered, and then returning the dialyzed blood to the patients body
  85. peritoneal
    removal of toxic substances from the body by perfusing the peritoneal cavity with a warm, sterile chemical solution
  86. circumcision
    removal of all or part of the foreskin, or perpuce, of the penis
  87. nephropexy
    fixation of a floating or mobile kidney
  88. orchidectomy
    removal of one or both testes; also called orchiectomy
  89. transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP)
    surgical procedure that involves inserting a resectoscope into the urethra to "chip away" at the prostate gland to remove the obstruction and flushing out the chips and sending them for analysis to detect possible evidence of cancer
  90. urethrotomy
    incision of a urethral stricture
  91. vasectomy
    excision of all or a segment of the vas deferens
  92. antibiotics
    treat bacterial infections to the urinary tract by acting on the bacterial membrane or one of its metabolic processes
  93. antispasmodics
    decrease spasms in the urethra and bladder by relaxing the smooth muscles lining their walls, thus allowing normal emptying of the bladder
  94. diuretics
    promote and increase the excretion of urin
  95. potassium supplements
    replace potassium due to depletion caused by diuretics
  96. androgens
    increase testosterone levels
  97. anti-impotence agents
    treat erectile dysfunction (impotence) by increasing blood flow to the penis, resulting in an erection
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Med Term ch. 11
2011-11-19 23:03:21
Genitourinary System

Genitourinary System
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