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Red Blood Cells (erythrocytes)
- Filled with hemoglobin
- Oxyhemoglobin transports oxygen and carbaminohemoglobin transports carbon dioxide
- RBC production is regulated by erythropoietin (senses oxygen)
White Blood Cells (leukocytes)
- Protect the body from infection by destroying disease
- Classified as granulocytes and agranulocytes.
- Granulocytes: neutrophils, basophils, & eosinophils
- Nongranulocytes: lymphocytes & monocytes
- Prevent blood loss
- Produced in red bone marrow
- Thrombocytosis: production of platelets
- Involved in hemostasis
- Type A: contains A antigen; can only receive A, O blood & can donate to type A, AB.
- Type B: contains B antigen; can only receive B, O blood & can donate to type B, AB.
- Type AB: contains both A & B antigen, can receive A, B, AB, O blood; can only donate to AB (universal recipient)
- Type O: contains no antigens, can receive O blood, can donate to type O, A, B, AB blood. (universal donar)
- Blood plasma minus clotting proteins
- Thickness of the blood
Approximate number of RBC in one microliter of blood
How are BASOPHILS and LYMPHOCYTES different?
Basophils are granulocytes and lymphocytes are angranulocytes.
What type of blood receives all types of blood? (Universal Recipient)
Type AB blood
What type of blood can be donated to all types of blood?
Type O blood
- Produced in red bone marrow
- Produced in lymphatic tissue
Inadequate absorption of Vitamin B12
- another type of antigen on the red blood cell
- must be considered when blood is transfused
- Rh (-) person cannot receive Rh (+) blood
- has the Rh antigen on the RBC membrane
- does not have anti-Rh antibodies in the plasma
If a baby is born with HDN (hemolytic disease of the newborn), it means
The baby is Rh-positive & the mother is Rh-negative
Which blood type receives neither A or B blood?
- Non-synthetic plasma protein
- Gamaglobulin- assists in fighting infection; antibiotic that is thick & painful
The study of blood
Three general functions of blood:
- Transport: delivers oxygen from the lungs to every cell in the body; nutrients, ions, hormones, etc use blood as a vehicle.
- Regulation: regulation of fluid and electrolyte balance, acid-base balance and body temperature.
- Protection: Protects the body from infection; contains clotting factors that help protect from blood loss.
Sickle Cell Anemia
- Decreased oxygenated cells & cell death
- C shape or sickle shaped
- blocked blood flow through tiny blood vessels
What needs to be present when thrombin is formed?
The destruction of red blood cells which leads to the release of hemoglobin from within the red blood cells into the blood plasma.
- Bile pigments that are tightly bound to albumin (various clotting factors, antibodies, & complement proteins)
- Removed from the liver into bile which reach the intestines & excreted from the body in the feces.
- What makes stool brown.
- Myeloid hemopoiesis - formation in the red bone marrow - ends of long bones such as the femur and in flat & irregular bones such as the sternum, craniam bones, vertebrae, & pelvis
- Lymphoid homopoiesis - formation in the lymphatic organs
Deficiency in WBC
What is it called when you cannot produce enough blood cells & what can it lead to?
- It leads to anemia/aplastic anemia
Dead neutrophils (WBC) :
antigen-antibody reaction that occurs when blood is mismatched.
- Process that stops bleeding
- Involves three events::
- Blood vessel spasm: contraction of smooth muscle in blood vessel that causes decrease in blood flow to the vessel
- Formation of the platelet plug: diminishes bleeding at the injured site when blood vessel is torn.
- Blood clotting/coagulation: seals off the opening in the injured blood vessel and stops the bleeding.
- Small layers of cells between the plasma and the RBC
- consists of WBC and platelets