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2011-11-20 18:43:08

Anatomy & Physiology
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  1. Red Blood Cells (erythrocytes)
    • Filled with hemoglobin
    • Oxyhemoglobin transports oxygen and carbaminohemoglobin transports carbon dioxide
    • RBC production is regulated by erythropoietin (senses oxygen)
  2. White Blood Cells (leukocytes)
    • Protect the body from infection by destroying disease
    • Classified as granulocytes and agranulocytes.
    • Granulocytes: neutrophils, basophils, & eosinophils
    • Nongranulocytes: lymphocytes & monocytes
  3. Platelets (thrombocytes)
    • Prevent blood loss
    • Produced in red bone marrow
    • Thrombocytosis: production of platelets
    • Involved in hemostasis
  4. Blood Types
    • Type A: contains A antigen; can only receive A, O blood & can donate to type A, AB.
    • Type B: contains B antigen; can only receive B, O blood & can donate to type B, AB.
    • Type AB: contains both A & B antigen, can receive A, B, AB, O blood; can only donate to AB (universal recipient)
    • Type O: contains no antigens, can receive O blood, can donate to type O, A, B, AB blood. (universal donar)
  5. Serum
    • Blood plasma minus clotting proteins
    • Thickness of the blood
  6. Approximate number of RBC in one microliter of blood
    4-6 million
  7. How are BASOPHILS and LYMPHOCYTES different?
    Basophils are granulocytes and lymphocytes are angranulocytes.
  8. What type of blood receives all types of blood? (Universal Recipient)
    Type AB blood
  9. What type of blood can be donated to all types of blood?
    Type O blood
  10. Granulocytes
    • Produced in red bone marrow
    • Basophils
    • Eosinophils
    • Neutrophils
  11. Angranulocytes
    • Produced in lymphatic tissue
    • Lymphocytes
    • Monocytes
  12. Pernicious Anemia
    Inadequate absorption of Vitamin B12
  13. Rh factor
    • another type of antigen on the red blood cell
    • must be considered when blood is transfused
    • Rh (-) person cannot receive Rh (+) blood
  14. Rh-positive
    • has the Rh antigen on the RBC membrane
    • does not have anti-Rh antibodies in the plasma
  15. If a baby is born with HDN (hemolytic disease of the newborn), it means
    The baby is Rh-positive & the mother is Rh-negative
  16. Which blood type receives neither A or B blood?
    Type O
  17. Globulin
    • Non-synthetic plasma protein
    • Gamaglobulin- assists in fighting infection; antibiotic that is thick & painful
  18. Hematology
    The study of blood
  19. Three general functions of blood:
    • Transport: delivers oxygen from the lungs to every cell in the body; nutrients, ions, hormones, etc use blood as a vehicle.
    • Regulation: regulation of fluid and electrolyte balance, acid-base balance and body temperature.
    • Protection: Protects the body from infection; contains clotting factors that help protect from blood loss.
  20. Sickle Cell Anemia
    • Decreased oxygenated cells & cell death
    • C shape or sickle shaped
    • blocked blood flow through tiny blood vessels
  21. What needs to be present when thrombin is formed?
  22. Hemolysis
    The destruction of red blood cells which leads to the release of hemoglobin from within the red blood cells into the blood plasma.
  23. Bilirubin
    • Bile pigments that are tightly bound to albumin (various clotting factors, antibodies, & complement proteins)
    • Removed from the liver into bile which reach the intestines & excreted from the body in the feces.
    • What makes stool brown.
  24. Blood formation
    • Myeloid hemopoiesis - formation in the red bone marrow - ends of long bones such as the femur and in flat & irregular bones such as the sternum, craniam bones, vertebrae, & pelvis
    • Lymphoid homopoiesis - formation in the lymphatic organs
  25. Deficiency in WBC
  26. What is it called when you cannot produce enough blood cells & what can it lead to?
    • Myelosuppression
    • It leads to anemia/aplastic anemia
  27. Dead neutrophils (WBC) :
  28. Agglutination
    antigen-antibody reaction that occurs when blood is mismatched.
  29. Hemostasis
    • Process that stops bleeding
    • Involves three events::
    • Blood vessel spasm: contraction of smooth muscle in blood vessel that causes decrease in blood flow to the vessel
    • Formation of the platelet plug: diminishes bleeding at the injured site when blood vessel is torn.
    • Blood clotting/coagulation: seals off the opening in the injured blood vessel and stops the bleeding.
  30. Buffy Coat
    • Small layers of cells between the plasma and the RBC
    • consists of WBC and platelets