Pharm, Diabetes

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Pharm, Diabetes
2011-11-19 22:31:46
Pharm Diabetes

Pharm, Diabetes
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  1. Alpha cells-
  2. Beta cells-
    Insulin & amylin
  3. Delta cells-
  4. GLUT 2-
    Liver and Pancreatic β-cells
  5. GLUT 4-
    Muscle and Fat cells
  6. >100 mg/dl blood glucose____ insulin release
  7. < 80/90 mg/dl blood glucose _____insulin release
  8. Insulin Secretion Stimulators
    • Glucose
    • Amino acids
    • Fatty acids
    • GI hormones
    • Cortisol
  9. Insulin Secretion Inhibitors
    • Somatostatin
    • α2 agonist
  10. What opposes insulin on carb metab?
  11. What Cells Secrete Glucagon?
    Pancreatic a cells
  12. Two Types of Diabetes Insipidus:
    • Central (Dec ADH)
    • Nephrogenic (Dec Response to ADH)
  13. Two Types of DM
    • 1
    • 2
  14. Clin Signs of DM (7):
    • Polyuria
    • Glucosuria
    • Ketoacidura
    • Polydipsia
    • Weight Loss
    • Fatigue
    • Depression/Coma
  15. Most common form of Diabetes in dogs:
    Type 1 DM
  16. 70-80% of diabetes in cats is of what type?
    Type 2
  17. Causes of DM Type 1
    • Pancreatitis
    • Senile Degeneration
    • Autoimmune
  18. Noninsulin Dep Daibetes=
    DM Type 2
  19. Which type of DM is due to Decreased receptors?
    DM 2
  20. Insulin’s effect on: Glucose Glycogen Glycolysis Gluconeogenesis Liponeogenesis
    • Glucose: Increase Uptake
    • Glycogen: Inc Synthesis
    • Glycolysis: Increase
    • Gluconeogenesis: Decrease
  21. Which two species have identicle insulin?
    Dogs and Hogs
  22. What two species have very similar insulin, but differs by 1 AA
    Feline and Bovine
  23. What insulin additive helps to slow down absorption and increase duration?
  24. What insulin additive helps in crystallization?
  25. What type of insulin is not crystallyzed?
  26. Intermediate acting insulin=
  27. Basic Protein that forms insulin complex-
  28. What type of insulin is used during a hyperglycemic emergency d/t its rapid action?
    Regular Insulin
  29. Intermediate Acting Insulins include (2):
    • Isophane Insulin (NPH)
    • Insulin Zinc Suspension (LENTE/Vetsulin)
  30. What brand name insulin is porcine insulin zinc suspension?
    Vetsulin (LENTE)
  31. Long Acting Insulins include (2):
    • Protamine Zinc Insulin (PZI)
    • Insulin Glargine (Lantus)
  32. What type of insulin is 90% Beef & 10% Pork Insulin?
    Protamine Zine Insulin (PZI)
  33. Which type of insulin is long acting but rapid release when give IV/IM?
    Glargine (Lantus)
  34. Which type of insulin has a low pH but is neutralized upon injection and form microprecipitates that slowly release insulin?
    Insulin Glargine (Lantus)
  35. Which type of insulin is often used in cats?
    PZI (Protamine Zince Insuline)
  36. *Which insulin is preferred d/t the high rate of remissionin treated Ps?
    Glargine (Lantus)
  37. Methods for monitoring DM Tx (3):
    • Glu Curves
    • Fructosamine
    • HBA
  38. Somogyi effect=
    ++Insulin => Rebound Hyperglycemia
  39. What drugs stimulate insulin release via inhibition of ATP/K channels?
  40. Sulfonyureas include:
    • Glipzide*
    • Chloropromamide
  41. Which oral drug may have future use in cats with moderate hyperglycemia?
    • Glipizide
    • (must have B Cells present, e.i. Type II diabetes, rare in dogs)
  42. Skipped last couple of human drugs