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What weak acid drugs are actively secreted in the proximal convoluted tubules? 7
- Glucronic acid conjugates
- Glycine conjugates
- Penicillin vs Probenicid
- Uric acid vs Sulphpyrazone
- Sulphate conjugates
- Thiazide diuretics
What drugs, when excreted, compete with other co-administered drugs for excretion in PCT? 2
What drugs have decreased excretion in urine with an acidic pH?
Weak acid drugs
What drugs have decreased excretion in urine with a basic pH?
Weak base drugs
What type of urine do carnivores have?
Acidic urinary pH
What type of urine do herbivores have?
Basic urinary pH
What drug causes a decrease in reabsorption in the PCT? Increase?
- Decreases reabsorption - Dopamine
- Increases reabsorption - Angiotensin II
What drugs cause a decrease in reabsorption in the DCT? Increase?
- Decrease - Thiazide diuretics
- Increase - ADH & Aldosterone
What is the treatment plan for glomerular nephritis?
- 1st - Antibiotics
- 2nd - Glucocoticoids
If glomerular nephritis is caused by bacterial infection should you give glucocorticoids?
What drug increases the excretion of bicarbonate, causes a mild alkaline urine and metabolic acidosis, and is used to treat glaucoma?
What drugs are included in the loop diuretics? 4
Which drugs inhibit the Na/K/Cl carrier and cause hypokalemia?
Which loop diuretics are metabolized via cytochrome P450? 2
Which loop diuretic is metabolized by glucuronidation?
What thiazide diuretics (DCT) are used in veterinary medicine? 2
When using thiazide diuretics, excretion of what is increased? Decreased?
- Increased - Na & Mg
- Decreased - Uric acid & Ca
Which diuretics reduce the volume of urine in diabeted insipidus?
What are the side effects of using thiazide diuretics? 3
- Metabolic acidosis
What are the clinical uses of thiazide diuretics? 3
- Mild heart failure
- Central or nephrogenic diabetes insipidus
What organisms usually cause polynephritis in cows? 2
- Cornybacterium renale
- E. coli
What is the best drug to treat polynephritis in cows?
TMS (broad spectrum, bactericidal)
What drugs block the effect of aldosterone in the collecting ducts (K sparring diuretics)? 2
What drug is an aldosterone receptor antagonist that gives a direct diuretic effect?
What drugs inhibit the effect of ADH/vasopressin in the collecting ducts and are very toxic? 3
- Lithium carbonate
What drugs are considered K sparring drugs (use to counteract hypokalemia)? 3
What are the clinical uses of K sparring diuretics? 4
- Edema and ascites
- Hepatic disease
- Portal hypertension
What K sparring diuretic has a short half-life, active metabolite, is well absorbed from the GIT, and should not be used long term?
What K sparring diuretic is poorly absorbed from the GIT, mostly excreted unchanged in the urine, and may have a side effect of hypokalemia?
What drugs aid in blood supply to the kidney and help renal function?
What type of drugs will block PGE and PGI and decrease blood flow to the kidney causing damage?
What drugs can be used to manage oliguria? 4
What type of stones can not be dissolved and must be removed surgically? 2
- Calcium carbonate stones
- Calcium oxalate stones
What type of stones are common?
What is the cause of benign prostatic hyperplasia?
Due an overproduction of dihydrotestosterone (DHT)
How is benign prostatic hyperplasia treated? 2
- Finasteride (blocks conversion of DHT)
What organisms can cause acute infection in the prostate? 5
- E. coli
What drugs are used to treat acute infection of the prostate? 5
What drugs are an alpha1 antagonist and block constriction of internal urethral sphincter (treat urethral hypertonicity)? 2
What drugs are centrally acting and used to relax urethral muscles (2)?