Pharm, Cancer

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HLW
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117985
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Pharm, Cancer
Updated:
2011-11-19 22:38:00
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Pharm Cancer
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Pharm, Cancer
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  1. What are the four specific characteristics of cancer (4)?
    • Uncontrolled proliferation
    • Dedifferentiation and loss of function
    • Angiogenesis
    • Invasiveness
  2. What anticancer drugs are considered cytotoxic (4)?
    • Alkylating drugs
    • Antimetabolites
    • Cytotoxic antibodies
    • Plant derivatives
  3. What hormones are used to treat cancer?
    Steroids
  4. What are the different classifications of chemotherapeutic agents (4)?
    • Cytotoxic drugs
    • Hormones
    • Monoclonal antibodies
    • Protein Kinase inhibitors
  5. What are some complications of chemotherapy (3)?
    • Extravasion of drug
    • Anaphylactic reactions
    • Toxic side effects
  6. What is a consequence of rapid tumor lysis?
    • Many intact cells are liberated at once causing:
    • Metabolic acidosis
    • Increase in uric acid
  7. What drugs are used to treat Squamous cell carcinoma (2)?
    • Whole cell bacilli Calmetter-Guerine (BCG)
    • Intralesional chemotherapy (Cisplastin, Methotrexate, 5-fluorouracil)
  8. What drug stimulates the immune system to recognize tumor cell specific antigens, is used to treat SCC and sarcoids, and glucocorticoids are used to pretreat?
    BCG
  9. What chemotherapeutic agent can be injected into the lesion itself, forms covalent bonds in DNA to prevent replication, is used to treat SCC, and has a side effect of being nephrotoxic?
    Cisplatin
  10. What chemotherapeutic agent is used to treat SCC, is an antimetabolite folate antagonist, metabolites remain in the cell for weeks, and has side effects of bone marrow toxicity and GIT irritation?
    Methotrexate
  11. What chemotherapeutic agent is used to treat SCC and prevents DNA formation but not RNA or protein synthesis?
    5-fluorouracil
  12. How are malignant lymphomas treated?
    Combination of several drugs on rotation to offset toxicity and side effects
  13. Why are different drugs used in rotation in chemotherapy?
    Decreases the possibility of the development of resistance to individual agents (don't use drugs of same class)
  14. What is the mode of action of alkylating agents?
    Formation of carbodium ion (interferes with transcription and replication)
  15. What alkylating agent is a nitrogen mustard and has side effects of alopecia and sterile hemorrhage cystitis?
    Cyclophosphamide
  16. What are some indications of cyclophosphamide use (4)?
    • Malignant lymphoma
    • Mast cell tumors
    • Condyloma
    • Carcinomas
  17. What alkylating agent is used in animals with multiple myeloma and is given orally?
    Melphalan
  18. What is the slowest working alkylating agent and is used to treat chronic lymphocytic leukemia?
    Chlorambucil
  19. Which cytotoxic antibiotics inhibit DNA topoisomerase II and RNA synthesis?
    Doxorubicin and the anthracyclines
  20. Which cytotoxic antibiotic intercalates in DNA interfering with RNA polymerase and with topoisomerase II?
    Dactinomycin
  21. Which cytotoxic antibiotic causes fragmentation of the DNA chains (will act on non-dividing cells as well as dividing cells)?
    Bleomycin
  22. Which cytotoxic antibiotic is activated to give an alkylating metabolite?
    Mitomycin
  23. What antimetabolite is used as a chemotherapeutic agent and has the action of inhibiting protein synthesis?
    L-asparaginase
  24. What should be used to treat sarcoids due to papilloma virus (3)?
    • Cisplatin
    • BCG
    • Acyclovir
  25. What is the mode of action of chemotherapeutic agents made from plant derivatives?
    Drug binds to the tubulin and inhibits its polymerization into microtubules (prevents cell replication in metaphase)
  26. What chemotherapeutic drugs are derived from Madagaskar periwinkle (3)?
    • Vincristine
    • Vinblastine
    • Vindesine
  27. What chemotherapeutic drugs are derived from the Taxus genus of plants (2)?
    • Paclitaxel (IV)
    • Docetaxel (PO)
  28. What chemotherapeutic drugs are considered monoclonal antibodies (3)?
    • Trastuzumab
    • Cetuximab
    • Bavacizumab
  29. What is the only drug in the class of protein kinase inhibitors?
    Imatinib
  30. What hormone has causes direct destruction of tumor cells, reduces tumor size, and has the side effect of inducing PgP expression?
    Glucocorticoids
  31. What hormones are useful in perianal gland tumors only?
    Anti-androgens (Delmadinone)
  32. In what tumors are anti-prostagens possibly useful?
    Mammary tumors
  33. What are some ways that cells build up resistance to anti-cancer drugs (5)?
    • Decrease accumulation of cytotoxic drug
    • Insufficient activation of the drug
    • Increases utilization of alternative metabolic pathways
    • Rapid repair
    • Altered activity of targets
  34. What should be the primary treatment for tumors?
    Surgery

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