Pharm, Antifung

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HLW
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117986
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Pharm, Antifung
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2011-11-19 22:41:50
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Pharm Antifung
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Pharm, Antifung
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  1. Which antifungals are considered natural? 3
    • Griseofulvine
    • Polyenes
    • Echinocandins
  2. Which antifungals are considered synthetic?
    • -azoles
    • Pyrimidines
  3. What antifungal is narrow spectrum, from a penicillin strain, is lipophilic (distributed well to skin), and is embryotoxic and teratogenic?
    Griseofulvine
  4. What organims is griseofulvine active against? 3
    • Trychophton
    • Epidermophyton
    • Microsporum (ringworm)
  5. What drugs belong under the polyene antifungals? 3
    • Amphotericin B
    • Natamycin
    • Nystatin
  6. What is the mode of action for polyene antifungals?
    Forms pores in fungal membrane (disturbance in electrolyte balance)
  7. What drug enhances the antifungal effects of flucytosine?
    Amphotericin B
  8. What antifungal is poorly absorbed after oral administration, is highly protein bound, has higher penetrations in inflamed tissues, and causes renal toxicity and hypokalemia?
    Amphotericin B
  9. What polyene antifungals are no absorbed through the skin and are only used to treat superficial infections by topical applications? 2
    • Nystatin
    • Natamycin
  10. What is the mode of action of echinocandins?
    Inhibition of 1,3 B-glucan synthesis which causes disruption of fungal cell wall
  11. What class of antifungals is based on the structure of aspergillus nidulans, causes exposure of antigens, decreases cell integrity, and is only given IV?
    Echinocandins
  12. Which class of antifungals can static or cidal, is broad spectrum, inhibits cytochrome P450 3A, and inhibits the transformation of Lanosterol to ergesterol (cell membrane)?
    -azole antifungals
  13. What are the two classifications under -azole antifungals? 2
    • Imidizoles (Ketoconazole, Clotrimazole, Miconazole/enilconazole)
    • Triazoles (Fluconazole, Itraconazole, Voriconazole/dosaconazole)
  14. Which Imidizole drug can be given systemically, is highly lipophilic, highly protein bound, and needs a low GI pH?
    Ketoconazole
  15. Which imidizole has extensive first pass effect and is only given topically?
    Clotrimazole
  16. Which imidizole is given topically, not many side effects, and have an ether group?
    Miconazole/enilconazole
  17. Which triazole can penetrate an undamaged blood brain barrier, has a large volume of distribution, and is water soluble?
    Fluconazole
  18. Which triazole is highly lipophilic, has an active metabolite, has biliary excretion, and will cross blood brain barrier if inflamed?
    Itraconazole
  19. Which tirazole has poor water solubility and will cross blood-brain barrier if inflamed?
    Voriconazole/dosaconazole
  20. What antifungal is considered an Allylamine?
    Terbinafine
  21. What antifungal has non-competitive inhibition of squalene epoxidase (cell membrane), is lipophilic, and side effects are limited?
    Terbinafine
  22. What antifungal falls under the Pyrimidine analogue/thymidylate synthase inhibitors?
    Flucytosine
  23. Which antifungal has a narrow spectrum of action, interferes with thymidylate synthetase and thus DNA synthesis, and has a rapid emergence of resistance?
    Flucytosine
  24. What is the mechanism of action for Flucytosine?
    Converted to antimetabolite in fungal cells only and causes selective toxicity
  25. What are some mechanisms of resistance against -azole antifungals? 3
    • Failure to accumulate within the cell
    • Changes of interaction b/t drug and target enzyme
    • Changes in other enzymes in the ergosterol pathway

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