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Nonliving chemical and physical factors.
The basic unit of ecological systems.
A group of individuals of the same species living in the same place at the same time.
All organisms that inhabit a particular area; assemble of populations of different species.
Includes all biotic and abiotic factors within a specific area.
The global ecosystem; the sum of all the planet's ecosystem-all of the life and where it lives.
Physiological responce to a situation that is long term, but still reversible.
Acclimation that may become irreversible or reversible on a season basis.
Acclimation that is a change based in behavior rather than a physical adaptation.
Individuals aggregated in patches.
a. most common in nature.
b. Associated with uneven nutrient distribution(fungi) or social behaviors(wolves)
Evenly spaced pattern of dispersion; direct result of individual interactions.
Position of each individual is independent of other individual.
Zero population growth:
When birth and death rates of a population are equal.
Exponential population growth:
Maximum increase of a species' population under ideal conditions.
Maximum population size a particular environment can support.
Logistic population growth:
Population increase levels off as carrying capacity is reached.
Density dependent factor:
Limiting factor whose effects intensify as population densify increases.
Competition between individuals of the same species for the same limited resources.
Density independent factor:
Limiting factor whose intensity is unrelated to population density.
The series of events from birth through reproduction and death that affect an organism's life schedule.
A group of individuals of the same age whose fate can be followed from birth to death.
Plot of the proportion or numbers in a cohort still at each age.
Survivorship curve TYPE I.
Low death rates during early and middle life, but steed death rates during late life.
Constant death rates during the entire life of an organism.
High death rates during early life, but leveling off during middle and late life.
Snowshoe Hare and Lynx:
Two species whose population size directly depends on the other.
The relative numbers of individuals at each age in a population.
Age structure categories:
1. Pre-reproductive juveniles.
2. Reproductive adults.
3. Post-reproductive adults.