Card Set Information
It's a final
When plants introduced from one area take over their new home and replace native plants and animals.
What invasive species was introduced in Australia in 1880s?
Prickly Pear Cacti
What bio control fought Prickly Pear Cacti, and where was it from?
Cactoblastis cactorum (moth) from Argentina
Pond plant introduced in southern US in 1880. From where?
Water hyacinth. Brazil.
Water hyacinth prevents what from getting to the water?
Oxygen and sunlight
What is used to kill hyacinth?
Two kinds of weevils that feed exclusively on the plants.
Plants introduced to Florida. Took over the Everglades.
What is used for melaleuca trees?
Melaleuca snout beetle.
Four things required of biological control pests?
Must be very specific for host plant. Won't eat native plants. Able to reproduce in new environment. Able to spread to new areas as fast as the host does.
What invasive species was introduced in late 1800s and US government paid farmers to plant it?
Which invasive species uses goats as control?
What grows in dry conditions and is very flammable. Can cause forest fires.
Once thought of as a tonic. Invasive species.
Birds spread which two invasive species?
Amur honeysuckle and autumn olives.
What does OPEC stand for?
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries
OPEC produces what percent of global oil?
What year did OPEC cut world supply of oil, which doubled energy prices?
What does NAFTA stand for? What year was it signed?
North American Free Trade Agreement. 1993
What percentage of early Americans worked in agriculture?
Who provided a great deal of the labor in early agrarian society?
Children in large families.
What is growing enough to live, but very little surplus to sell.
Mechanization in farming shifts population where?
To the cities
Today, less than what percent of Americans are farmers?
What country has the cheapest food in the world compared to their income?
What do we use as agircultural inputs?
Fertilizers, herbicides, pesticides, and irrigation
Farming today relies on what?
In modern society, "we eat _____"
When was the population growth greater than food growth in the developing world?
Anne and Paul Ehrlich wrote....
The Population Bomb
Why did the US care about famine in other countries?
Famine led to revolution and possibly communism.
Rockefeller and Ford Foundations hire who?
What is it when wheat plants produce more grain, grow taller, but fall over?
What was Borlaug's solution?
Cross breed high yield US varieties, tropical Mexican varities, and Japanese dwarf breeds.
Borlaug produced what bacame known as:
After Borlaug, Mexico soon began....
Where is the research center for Miracle rice?
What year did Norman Borlaug win the Nobel Peace price?
We have traded a global dependency on food for what?
A global dependency on oil!
Why does the green revolution falter?
Poor family farmers cannot buy inputs
What happens when big farmers buy land from small farmers in Mexico?
Move to cities. Ghettos grow.
What was NAFTA put in place?
It intended to rescue Mexico from the situation the Green Revolution put it in. To help it become a "first world" nation.
Does the population rate show signs of slowing?
When are we expected to hit 9 billion people?
What two countries have declining populations?
Spain and Japan
What society has high birth rates? Which has lower?
Subsistence agriculture and poverty has higher. Industrialization means lower birth rates.
What is the best contraceptive?
____% of the world uses up ____% of the world's resources.
20 and 75
How many planets would we needed if everyone had the same standard of living as the US does?
When was the Homestead Act passed?
What did the Homestead Act give?
160 acres to anyone who would improve it.
The western plains were settled by who?
What plant was grown on the homesteads?
When there is a surplus of wheat, what do the farmers do?
Organize a union, the "Farmer's Grange"
Why is Farmer's Grange ineffective?
Farmers don't want to volunteer and cut their own production.
In 1936, government agrees to buy surplus wheat at a:
What does the target price encourage?
Increased production of wheat!
What does the "crop subsidy" option on wheat allow?
If market price is below target price, farmers can sell on the market and the government will pay the difference!
What other major crop was added to the subsidy program?
What does the subsidy program cost taxpayers?
10 billion a year by 1980s
What big business buys up farms to set up corporate farming?
What does the Conservation Reserve Program offer?
Government will pay a certain amount per acre to not plant crops on hilly land.
What does the US government do with surplus dairy?
Buys it and dries it to be stored in refrigerated caves.
Why is 90% of surplus US food given to people who are not starving?
Peaceful, stable countries are the easiest places to hand out food
What is the increase on free food to the host country?
Decreases incentive for local farming
What dictatorship did US give food to in the 1970s?
What is the most "free" country in the world?
Why does the US support Somlian warlords?
Because the alternative is Islamic rule.
What is it called when a country unloads crops at low prices in other countries, unfairly driving down prices in those markets?
What is the best aid we can give to developing countries?
What is a better idea as consumers so we can throw away less?
Buy less, but better quality.
What is the most durable fabric ever?
What do we do with our extra clothes in America?
Give them out as aid in other counttries. Destroys local market.
Who won the Nobel Peace Price for microfinancing, giving out loans to women in India.
What college renews draft horse breeding and trading?
Why do we need national standards for organic food?
National standards replace a number of different certification systems run by individual states and private groups.
Lack of national standards in organic food impaired what?
Are poisonous plant products allowed in organic food?
Only some. Rotenone and pyrethrum
Are heavy metals allowed in organic food?
Some, such as copper and sulfur.
Synthetic fertlizers in organic food?
Is manure acceptable in organic food?
Yes, but they must be composted
Antibiotics given to animals for organic?
Can animals be organic and caged in close proximity?
No, must have "free roaming" area.
Are GMOs allowed in organic?
What percent of a products content must be organic to receive an organic seal?
What percentage must the food have to get the label: "made with organic ingredients?"
70 to 95 percent
What is the super chain of natural food stores?
What rules does the USDA have about sustainability?
Is organic healthy for the environment?
Is organic healthy for local community
Why was organic originally mostly local?
There was little interstate commerce.
Now that there is large scale organic carriers, what is there a new emphasis on?
One who eats from local food providers.
What is the 100 mile diet.
Trying to eat 90% of calories from food grown within 100 miles of your own home.
What is a food subscription?
Paying a fee and having local food delivered to you once a week. Whatever the farmer has available that week.
Can people on food stamps get local and organic food?
Yes, they get special tokens at the farmers' market.
Over what percent of Americans drink at least one cup of coffee a day?
Coffee is grown in what type of countries?
Coffee is second to what in global trade?
Coffee grows in what type of area?
When did the US develop full sun coffee plants?
What happens to the wildlife in sun grown coffee?
It is wiped out.
What is the symbol of shade grown coffee?
What company certifies coffee growers as "Eco-OK"?
What kind of coffee is grown only by small farmers?
What does it mean to buy a product that guarantees proper wages and prices paid to the manufacturer?
What else can be fair trade?
Bananas, chocolate, rice, clothing
What is America's number one fruit?
Does America produce bananas?
No, entirely imported.
Where do wild bananas grow?
What needs to happen for a banana to be seedless?
Two species cross and produce sterile offspring.
What are young banana plants called?
What conditions do bananas need to grow?
Tropical with high rainfall
What was required to sell bananas in the US
Trains to get them out of the jungle.
What is the banana of choice in America?
What man began the Central American banana trade?
What company did Minor Keith start?
Tropical Trading and Transport Company
When the TTTC joins with the Boston Fruit Company, what is born?
United Fruit Company
What nickname was the United Fruit Company given?
Countries run by United Fruit Company were called...
When did democracy come to Guatemala?
When did US declare Guatemala communist?