Africa test 3.txt

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jenb72188
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11803
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Africa test 3.txt
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2010-03-23 23:40:35
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Intro to Africa Culture
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Introduction to African culture
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  1. What is the definition of culture
    Way of life
  2. Material culture
    Physical, visible elements
  3. Non-material culture
    Invisible, intangible elements
  4. African art - 5 traditions
    • Craftsmaking
    • Royal art
    • Nok culture
    • Glyptic art
    • Architectural art
  5. African art - 4 standards
    • Smoothness
    • Symmetry
    • Ephebism
    • Hypermimesis
  6. Craftsmaking
    Textile weaving, maskmaking
  7. Royal art
    Throwns, crowns, other regalia
  8. Nok culture
    • Sculpture of bronze and clay
    • - ife, benin people
  9. Glyptic art
    Painting on rocks and walls
  10. Architectural art
    Ex., great zimbabwe ruins, pyramaids
  11. Ephebism
    Emphasis on youthful images
  12. Hypermimesis
    General resemblance rather than exact representation
  13. Language families
    • Afro-asiatic
    • Nilo-saharan
    • Khoisan
    • Niger-congo-kordofanian
    • - kordofanian
    • - niger-congo
  14. Afro-Asiatic or hamito-Semitic
    • -Most important
    • -Semetic branch includes languages also spoken in asia and north africa
    • -arabic leading in this group
    • -amharric official language of ethiopia
    • -other semitic include tigre in eritrea, berber in NW, somali in somalia
  15. Nilo-Saharan
    • -spoken along parts of the nile and niger in...
    • -chad
    • -uganda
    • -western sudan
    • -western kenya
  16. Khoisan
    • -smallest language family
    • -no more than 100000 speakers altogether
    • -khoikhoi and san of SE africa
    • -also called "click languages"
  17. Niger-Congo-kordofanian
    Made up of two subfamilies
  18. Kordofanian
    • -made up of 30 languages
    • -all found in the nuba hills of southern sudan
  19. Niger-Congo
    • -covers almost all of africa below the sahara
    • -3 out of 4 speakers
    • -several branches
    • --bantu
    • --west sudanic
    • --kwa
    • --west atlantic
    • --malayo
    • --indo-european
  20. Bantu languages
    • -cental-sothern zulu
    • -xhosa
    • -shona
    • -bemba
    • -kikuyu
  21. West sudanic
    Niger delta
  22. Kwa branch
    Akan in west africa
  23. West atlantic branch
    • -gambia
    • -sierra leone
  24. Malayo
    • Polynesian family
    • -malagasy in madagascar
  25. Indo-European
    • -2members: english, afrikaans
    • -indigenous to groups in south africa, zimbabwe, liberia
  26. Monolingual countries
    Arabic north africa except algeria
  27. Bilingual countries
    • Cameroon
    • South africa
  28. Multilingual countries
    • Senegal
    • Nigeria
  29. Anglophone counties
    • -american
    • -liberia
    • -south africa
  30. Francophone countries
    • -french
    • -togo
    • -gabon
  31. Lusophone countries
    • -portugese
    • -angola
    • -mozambique
  32. Language facts
    • -one third of 3000 worldwide languages are in africa
    • -avg african language has about 200k speakers
    • -apart from arabic, most widely spoken african languages are swahili and hausa, each with more than 30 million speakers
    • -kiswahili official language of east africa, and tanzania
    • -hausa official of west africa
  33. Explain - African societies are collectives
    Interest of group is more important than that of individual
  34. Functions of family
    • -share resources
    • -agent of socialization (to transmit values to youth)
    • -unit of economic production
    • -network to seek access to oppurtunities in urban areas
  35. Bridewealth
    • -paid by groom's family to bride's family
    • -expression of gratitude
    • -compensate for loss of her services
    • -token of good faith
    • -to respect bride and not mistreat her
  36. Christianity
    • Largest religion
    • -earlist period: introduced in N africa during apostolic age in 1st century AD, declined in 7th with rise of islam
    • -2nd phase: during portugese exploration of atlantic coasts during 15th century, missionaries sent to convert many areas
    • -3rd phase: reaction to slave trade in 19th century, coincided with colonial expansion
  37. Ethiopian type Christian churches
    • -emerged toward end of 19th century, beginning of 20th
    • -essentialy protest movements
    • -broke away from missionary churches - seen as supporting oppressive colonial regimes
    • -found mostly in ES africa
    • -african leaders
    • -non prophetic
    • -do not place a great deal of emphasis on holy spirits
  38. Spirit type Christian churches
    • -aka zionist
    • -prophetic
    • -emphasis on holy spirit
    • -drumming, dancing
    • -concerned with practical benefits of religion rather than salvation in after-life
    • -appeal to those upset with the destruction of social culture
  39. Messianic Christian churches
    • -special focus on leader who has prophetic powers
    • -leaders occupies a special place between his followers and god
    • -ex. Simon kimbangu - he founded an african christian church called the church of jesus christ on this earth
  40. Islam
    • -north africa: jihads or holy wars
    • -west africa: trade, contact
    • -accomodates african values more than other religions - polygamy
    • -believes in the equality of the faithful
  41. Judaism
    -found on a limited basis in north, south africa
  42. Other religions
    East, south africa: hinduism, buddhism, shintoism, and taoism
  43. Literature forms
    • -Much african literature is oral
    • -that which is not oral;
    • -proverbs and riddles
    • -myths and legends
    • -folktales and popular stories
    • -poetry
  44. Proverbs and riddles
    Convey accepted social norm
  45. Myths and legends
    • Teach about:
    • -belief in supernaturak
    • -history and origins of peoples and societies
  46. Folktales and popular stories
    • -regarded as fiction
    • -spider, tortoise, hare
    • -spider is anansi
    • -often depicted as trickster, liar, crook, conman
    • -sometimes seen as hero
  47. Poetry
    • -narrative epic: chanted, takes several days to perform, talks about historical legend dealing with conquerers and founders of dynasty
    • -occupational poetry: belongs to a group practicing a trade or vocation
    • -love songs
    • -cult poetry: rituals for the divinities/oracles, celebrates the forces of nature used in practice of traditional medicine
  48. Wole Soyinka
    1986 - Nobel Prize
  49. Chinua Achebe
    • -Most outstanding: Things Fall Apart
    • -1993 - Times of London named him one of the 1000 makers of the 20th century
    • -Became world classic in 1993
    • -Other novels
    • -Arrow of God
    • -No longer at ease
    • -A man of the people
    • -Anthills of the Savanna
  50. Thomas Mofolo
    • -African literature written in African Languages
    • -Travelers of the East
    • -Chaka the Zulu
  51. Ngugij W'a Thiongo
    • -Formerly James Ngugi
    • -leading writer in East Africa
    • -Novels:
    • -Weep not child
    • -The River between
    • -Grain of Wheat
    • -Petals of Blood
    • -Devil on the cross (deals with issue of sexual harassment)
  52. Negritude
    • -Leopold Senghor
    • -Means "Blackness"
    • -African literature written in french
    • -creates feelings of pride in being black
    • -seeks to identify positive values in african culture
    • -puts emphasis on Pan Africanism
    • -reaction to colonial literature
    • -became an anti-colonial ideaology
    • -slogan: Leopard cannot change it's spots
    • -came as part of Harlem Renasissance (1920's)
  53. Outward signs of re-africanization in America
    • -Afro hairdos
    • -african names
  54. 4 Major instruments
    • -Cordophones (string)
    • -Idiophones (elastic material - resonant solids)
    • -Aerophones (sound through air vibration)
    • -Membranophones (drum-like)
  55. Purpose of African Music
    • -recreational
    • -convey messages
  56. Idiophone instrument examples
    • -rattles
    • -bells
    • -mbira (thumb piano)
    • -xylophone
  57. Musicians
    • -Miriam Makeba
    • -Hugh Masekela
    • -Lady smith black mambazo (south africa)
  58. Dancing
    • -utilize symbolic gestures, props, masks, costumes
    • -team dancing
    • -formations
    • -linear
    • -circular
    • -serpentine
    • -columns of 2 or more rows

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