Med-Surge

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plbernal
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118116
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Med-Surge
Updated:
2011-11-21 12:34:54
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Module III vocabulary
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Description:
reproductive disorders, skin disorders, eyes disorders, breast cancer
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  1. A collection of purulent material
    Abcess
  2. A cyst in a paired vestibular gland in the vulva
    Bartholin's cyst
  3. A disease transmitted by body fluids that results in impaired immune response
    Aquired Immunodificiency Syndrome (AIDS)
  4. Radiation delivered by an internal device placed close to the tumor
    Brachytherapy
  5. An infection caused by Candida species or yeast; also referred to as monilial vaginitis or yeast infection
    Candidiasis
  6. Repair of the vagina
    Colporrhaphy
  7. Warty growths indicative of the human papillomavirus (HPV)
    Condylomata
  8. Procedure in which a cone-shaped piece of cervical tissue is removed as a result of detection of abnormal cells; also called cone biopsy
    Conization
  9. Destruction of tissue by freezing
    Cryotherapy
  10. Bulging of the bladdar downward into the vagina
    Cystocele
  11. Rinsing the vaginal vanal with fluid
    Douche
  12. Term related to abnormal cell changes found on Pap smear and cervical biopsy reports
    Dysplasia
  13. Inflammation of the mucosa and the glands of the cervix
    Endocervicitis
  14. Endometrial tissue in abnormal locations; causes pain with menstruation, scarring, and possible infertility
    Endometriosis
  15. A protrusion of the intestinal into the vagina
    Enterocele
  16. A benign tumor of the uterus that may cause irregular bleeding; also called myoma or leiomyoma
    Fibroid tumor
  17. Abnormal opening between two organs or sites
    Fistula
  18. Microscopic findings that indicate monilla
    Hyphae
  19. Surgical removal of the uterus
    Hysterectomy
  20. Vaginal bacteria that limit the growth of other bacteria by producing hydrogen peroxide
    Lactobacilli
  21. Surgical device inserted through a periumbilical incision to facilitate visualization and surgical procedures
    Laparoscope
  22. Benign disorder of the vulva that usually occurs with estrogen levels are low; characterized by itching
    Lichen sclerosus
  23. Chemotherapy delivered in a liposome, a nontoxic drug carrier
    Liposomal therapy
  24. Procedure in which laser energy is used to remove a portion of cervical tissue after abnormal biopsy findings
    Loop Electrocautery Excision Procedure (LEEP)
  25. Inflammation of the cervix with exudate; almost always related to a chlamydial infection
    Mucopurulent Cervicitis
  26. Removal of uterine fibroids through an abdominal incision
    Myomectomy
  27. Surgical removal of an ovary
    Oophorectomy
  28. Major surgical procedure in which the pelvic organs are removed
    Pelvic exenteration
  29. Infection of uterus and fallopian tubes, usually from a sexually transmitted disease
    Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)
  30. Surgical repair of perineal lacerations
    Perineorrhaphy
  31. Disorder in the hypothalamic-pituitary and ovarian network, resulting in chronic anovulation, androgen excess, and polycystic ovaries
    Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)
  32. Bulging of the rectum into the vagina
    Rectocele
  33. Inflammation of the fallopian tube
    Salpingitis
  34. Removal of the ovary and its fallopian tube
    Salpingo-oophorectomy
  35. Removal of the fallopian tube alone
    Salpingectomy
  36. Term used to describe the vagina following a hysterectomy, which involves removal of the uterus including the cervix
    Vaginal Vault
  37. Inflammation of the vagina, usually secondary to infection
    Vaginitis
  38. Inflammation of the vulvar vestibule, or tissue around the opening of the vagina, that often causes pain with intercourse
    Vestibulitis
  39. Pain with intercourse
    Dyspareunia
  40. Most common type of vulvodynia, characterized by sharp pain in response to pressure applied to the vestibular area of the vulva
    Vestibulodynia
  41. Thickening of lesions of the vulva; usually causes itching and may require biopsy to exclude malignancy
    Vulvar dystrophy
  42. Removal of the tissue of the vulva
    Vulvectomy
  43. Inflammation of the vulva, usually secondary to infection or irritation
    Vulvitis
  44. Painful condition that affects the vulva
    Vulvodynia
  45. Use of anticancer medication in addition to other treatments to delay or prevent a recurrence of the disease
    Adjuvant Chemotherapy
  46. Use of synthetic hormones or other medications given after primary treatment to increase the chances of a cure by stopping or slowing the growth of certain cancers that are affectedc by hormone stimulation (sometimes called endocrine or antiestrogen therapy)
    Adjuvant Hormone Therapy
  47. Medications that block the production of estrogens by the adrenal glands
    Aromatase inhibitors
  48. Abnormal increase in the number of cells in a specific area within the ductal or lobular areas of the breast; this abnormal proliferation increases the risk for cancer
    Atypical hyperplasia
  49. Various types of atypical, yet noncancerous, breast tissue that increase the risk for breast cancer
    Benign proliferative breast disease
  50. Form of partial breast radiation in which a radioactive source is placed within the lumpectomy site
    Brachytherapy
  51. Genes on chromasome 17 that, when damaged or mutated, increase a woman's risk for breast and/or ovarian cancer compared with women without the mutation
    BRCA 1 or BRCA 2
  52. Surgery to remove a breast tumor and a margin of tissue around the tumor without removing any other part of the breast; may or may not include lymph node removal and radiation therapy
    Breast conservation treatment
  53. Administation of chemotherapeutic agents at standard doses with shorter time intervals between each cycle of treatment
    Dose-dense chemotherapy
  54. Cancer cells starting in the ductal system of the breast not penetrating surrounding tissue
    Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS)
  55. Test to determine whether the breast tumor is nourished by hormones; this information helps to determine prognosis and treatment
    Estrogen and progesterone receptor assay
  56. Term used to describe certain benign changes in the breast, typically associated with palpable nodularity, lumpiness, swelling, or pain
    Fibrocystic breast changes
  57. Removal of fluid for diagnostic anyalysis from a cyst or cells from a mass using a needle and syringe
    Fine-needle aspiration (FNA)
  58. Use of mammography after an injection of radiopaque dye to diagnose problems in the ductal system of the breast
    Galectography
  59. Overdeveloped breast tissue typically seen in adolescent boys
    Gynecomastia
  60. Atypical change and proliferation of the lobular cells of the breast; previously considered a premalignant condition but now considered a marker of increased risk for invasive breast cancer
    Lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS)
  61. Chronic swelling of an extremity due to interrupted lymphatic ciruclation, typically from an axillary lymph node dissection
    Lymphedema
  62. Surgery to reconstruct or change the size or shape of the breast; can be performed for reduction or augmentation
    Mammoplasty
  63. Breast pain, usually related to hormonal fluctuation or irritation of a nerve
    Mastalgia
  64. Inflammation or infection of the breast
    Mastitis
  65. Removal of the breast tissue, nipple-areola complex, and a portion of the axillary lymph nodes
    Modified radical mastextomy
  66. Form of breast cancer that begins in the ductal system and involves the nipple, areola, and surrounding skin
    Paget's disease
  67. Removal of the breast to reduce the risk of breast cancer in women considered to be at high risk
    Prophylactic mastectomy
  68. First lymph node(s) in the lymphatic basin that receives drainage from the primary tumor in the breast; identified by a radiosotop and/or blue dye
    Sentinel lymph node
  69. Computer-guided method of core needle biopsy that is useful when masses in the breast cannot be felt but can be visualized using mammography
    Stereotactic core biopsy
  70. Surgical removal of all or a portion of a mass for microscopic examination by a pathologist
    Surgical biopsy
  71. Series of breast-reconstructive surgeries after a mastectomy; involves stretching in the skin and muscles before inserting the permanent implant
    Tissue expander followed by permanent implant
  72. Removal of the breast tissue and nipple-areola complex
    Total mastectomy
  73. Method of breast reconstruction in which a flap of skin, fat, and muscle from the lower abdomen, with its attached blood supply, is rotated to the mastectomy site
    Transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (TRAM) flap
  74. Imaging method using high-frequency sound waves to diagnose whether masses are solid or fluid filled
    Ultrasonography
  75. Surgical (orchiectomy) ormedical castration (eg, with luteinizing hormone–releasing hormone agonists)
    Androgen deprivation therapy
  76. Noncancerous enlargementor hypertrophy of the prostate; the most common pathologic condition in older men
    Benign prostatic hyperplasia
  77. Delivery of radiation therapy through internal implants called seeds to a localized area of tissue
    Brachytherapy
  78. Excision of the foreskin, or prepuce, of the glans penis
    Circumcision
  79. Localized treatment of the prostate by application of freezing temperatures
    Cryosurgery of the prostate
  80. Surgical creation of an opening into the urinary bladder
    Cystostomy
  81. Most common congenital defect in males; char-acterized by failure of one or both of the testes to descend intothe scrotum
    Cryptorchidism
  82. Infection of the epididymis that usually descends from an infected prostate or urinary tract; also may develop asa complication of gonorrhea
    Epididymitis
  83. Also called impotence; the inability to either achieve or maintain an erection sufficient to accomplish sexual intercourse
    Erectile dysfunction
  84. A collection of fluid, generally in the tunica vaginalis of the testis, although it also may collect within the spermatic cord
    Hydrocele
  85. Treatments such as laparoscopic androbotic prostatectomy, cryotherapy, and high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU); are less invasive than other procedures with less morbidity, lower blood loss, and more rapid recovery
    Minimally invasive therapy
  86. Surgical removal of one or both of the testes
    Orchiectomy
  87. Inflammation of the testes (testicular congestion) causedby pyogenic, viral, spirochetal, parasitic, traumatic, chemical, orunknown factors
    Orchitis
  88. Malignancy that can involve the glans, the body of the penis, the urethra, and regional or distant lymph nodes
    Penile cancer
  89. Buildup of fibrous plaques in the sheath of the corpus cavernosum, causing curvature of the penis when it is erect
    Peyronie’s disease
  90. Condition in which the foreskin is constricted so that it cannot be retracted over the glans; can occur congenitally or from inflammation and edema
    Phimosis
  91. An uncontrolled, persistent erection of the penis from either neural or vascular causes, including medications, sickle cell thrombosis, leukemic cell infiltration, spinal cord tumors,and tumor invasion of the penis or its vessels
    Priapism
  92. A common type of cancer in men; involves theprostate gland
    Prostate cancer
  93. Open or laparoscopic surgical removal of the entire prostate, the prostate urethra, the attached seminalvesicles plus the ampulla of the vas deferens
    Prostatectomy
  94. Substance that is produced by the prostate gland; is used in combination with digital rectal examination to screen for prostate cancer
    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA)
  95. Obstructive and irritative symptom complex thatincludes increased frequency and hesitancy in starting urination,a decrease in the volume and force of the urinary stream, acuteurinary retention, and recurrent urinary tract infections
    Prostatism
  96. Inflammation of the prostate gland caused byinfectious agents (bacteria, fungi, mycoplasma) or various other problems (eg, urethral stricture, prostatic hyperplasia)
    Prostatitis
  97. Production of sperm in the testes
    Spermatogenesis
  98. Cancer of one or both testes
    Testicular cancer
  99. Male sex hormone secreted by the testes; induces and preserves the male sex characteristics
    Testosterone
  100. Resection of theprostate through endoscopy; the surgical and opticalinstrument is introduced directly through the urethra to the prostate, and the gland is then removed in small chips with an electrical cutting loop
    Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP)
  101. An abnormal dilation of the veins of the pampiniform venous plexus in the scrotum (the network of veins from the testis and the epididymis, which constitute part of the spermatic cord)
    Varicocele
  102. Also called male sterilization; ligation and transection of part of the vas deferens, with or without removal of a segment of the vas, to prevent the passage of the sperm from the testes
    Vasectomy
  103. Separation of epidermal cells from each other due to damage or abnormality of the intracellular substance
    Acantholysis
  104. A bath with therapeutic additives
    Balneotherapy
  105. Localized skin infection involving several hair follicles
    Carbuncle
  106. Inflammation of the lips (when dry, cracking,inflamed skin occurs at the corners of the mouth it is called angular cheilitis; when caused by sun exposure it is called solar cheilitis)
    Cheilitis
  107. The primary lesions of acne, caused by sebum blockage in the hair follicle
    Comedones
  108. Destructive to cells
    Cytotoxic
  109. Removal of necrotic or dead tissue by mechanical, surgical, or autolytic means
    Debridement
  110. An inflammation of the skin
    Dermatitis
  111. Any abnormal skin lesion
    Dermatosis
  112. Development of epidermal cells
    Epidermoposiesis
  113. A substance that acts to break up fibrin, the fine filaments of blood clots
    Fibrinolytic
  114. Localized skin infection of a single hair follicle
    Furuncle
  115. A material that absorbs moisture
    Hydrophilic
  116. A material that repels moisture
    Hydrophobic
  117. A material that absorbs moisture from the air
    Hygroscopic
  118. Thickening of the horny layer of the skin
    Lichenification
  119. Lotions with added oil for increased softening of the skin
    Liniments
  120. A substance that stimulates mitosis or cell division and reproduction
    Mitogenic
  121. Bandlike streaks on the skin, distinguished by color,texture, depression, or elevation from the tissue in which they are found; usually purplish or white
    Striae
  122. Liquid preparations in which powder issuspended, requiring shaking before use
    Suspension
  123. A superficial fungal infection on the skin or scalp
    Tinea
  124. Overly dry skin
    Xerosis
  125. Absence of the natural lens
    Aphakia
  126. Edema of the conjunctiva
    Chemosis
  127. Process by which the eye adjusts for near distance (eg, reading) by changing the curvature of the lens to focus a clear image on the retina
    Accommodation
  128. Space in the eye bordered anteriorly by the cornea and posteriorly by the iris and pupil
    Anterior chamber
  129. Watery fluid that fills the anterior and posterior chambers of the eye
    Aqueous humor
  130. Refractive error in which light rays are spread over adiffuse area rather than sharply focused on the retina, a condi-tion caused by differences in the curvature of the cornea andlens
    Astigmatism
  131. Normal ability of both eyes to focus on one object and fuse the two images into one
    Binocular vision
  132. Inability to see, usually defined as corrected visual acuity of 20/400 or less, or a visual field of no more than 20degrees in the better eye
    Blindness
  133. Corneal edema with painful blisters in the epithelium due to excessive corneal hydration
    Bullous keratopathy
  134. Retinal photoreceptor cells essential for visual acuity and color discrimination
    Cones
  135. Seeing one object as two; double vision
    Diplopia
  136. Absence of refractive error
    Emmetropia
  137. Complete removal of the eyeball and part of the optic nerve
    Enucleation
  138. Removal of the intraocular contents through a corneal or scleral incision; the optic nerve, sclera, extra ocularmuscles, and sometimes, the cornea are left intact
    Evisceration
  139. Congestion of blood vessels
    Injection
  140. Cone-shaped deformity of the cornea
    Keratoconus
  141. Junction of the cornea and sclera
    Limbus
  142. Medications that cause pupillary constriction
    Miotics
  143. Meditations that cause pupillary dilation
    Mydriatics
  144. Blood in the anterior chamber
    Hyphema
  145. Surgical removal of the entire contents of the orbit, including the eyeball and lids
    Exenteration
  146. "red eye" resulting form dilation of the vasculature of the conjunctiva
    Hyperemia
  147. Farsightedness; a refractive error in which the focus of light rays from a distant object is behind the retina
    Hyperopia
  148. Collection of inflammatory cells that has the appearanceof a pale layer in the inferior anterior chamber of the eye
    Hypopyon
  149. Nearsightedness; a refractive error in which the focus of light rays from a distant object is anterior to the retina
    Myopia
  150. Growth of abnormal new blood vessels
    Neovascularization
  151. Involuntary oscillation of the eyeball
    Nystagmus
  152. Swelling of the optic disk due to increased intracranial pressure
    Papilledema
  153. Ocular pain on exposure to light
    Photophobia
  154. Space between the iris and vitreous
    Posterior chamber
  155. Downward displacement of the eyeball resulting from an inflammatory condition of the orbit or a mass within the orbital cavity
    Proptosis
  156. Drooping eyelid
    Ptosis
  157. Determination of the refractive errors of the eye and correction by lenses
    Refraction
  158. Retinal photoreceptor cells essential for bright andf dim light
    Rods
  159. Blind or partially blind areas in the visual field
    Scotomas
  160. A condition in which there is deviation from perfectocular alignment
    Strabismus
  161. An inflammatory condition created inthe fellow eye by the affected eye (without useful vision); thecondition may become chronic and result in blindness (of thefellow eye)
    Sympathetic ophthalmia
  162. A bilateral chronic follicular conjunctivitis of childhoodthat leads to blindness during adulthood, if left untreated
    Trachoma
  163. Gelatinous material (transparent and colorless)that fills the eyeball behind the lens
    Vitreous humor

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