So you can feel the expansion of the elastic arterial walls
An expansion and contraction of the elastic arterial walls during systole and diastole:
The smalles unit of lymphatic ducts:
Compare lymph with interstitial fluid:
Lymph- clear watery fluid in lymphatic vessels closely resembling blood plasma but having less protein than plasma, own vessels
Interstitial fluid- complex fluid filling the spaces between cells with less protein than plasma
How does the protein content of lymph and interstitial fluid compare with that of plasma?
Lymph and interstitial fluid have less proteins than plasma
What is the composition of extracellular fluid?
blood plasma and interstitial fluid
What is the source of lymph in the left thoracic duct? What is its fate?
It drains the entire body except the upper right quadrant and drains into the left subclavian vein which drains to the superior vena cava
What is the source of lymph in the right lymphatic ducts? What is its fate?
Upper right quadrent and drains into the right subclavian vein
How does the interstitial fluid enter the lymph vessels?
Through cleffs in the lymph vessel walls
Name some differences between veins and lymphatic vessels:
How is it possible for lymphatic vessels to absorb some substances that are not absorbed by the blood capillaries?
High degree of permeability of lymphatic capillary walls
Number of layers in the walls of lymph vessels: ___ lymphatic capillaries: ___
By what process do lymph vessels regenerate?
How is is possible for proteins in the interstitial fluid to return to the blood?
through the lymphatics
Mechanisms targetting specific invaders: name the two types of cells:
T cells and B cells
Mechanisms acting on many invaders: name the cells involved:
neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages, and NK cells
Does specific immunity or nonspecific immunity act more readily?
What is species resistance?
genetic characteristics of humans protects us against diseases from other species
What is the benefit of inflammation?
Isolates pathogen and stimulates arrival of immune cells
What is your first line of defense?
Skin and mucous membranes
What are NK cells? How do they function?
Natural killer cells
Kill cancer cells and virus infected cells
A group of plasma proteins causing lysis of foreign cells"
How does interferon work?
Chemicals are secreted by cells that have become infected by virus. Inhibits spread of virus.
The process of ingestin pathoges and breaking them down: _______Name two kinds of WBCs having this property:
Neutrophils and Magrophages
Descrive cell-mediated immunity and tell which kind of cells react:
A macrophage engulfs an antigen, parially digests it, and carries it to the cell surface for display. T cells with receptors to fit the antigen will react with the antigen and become activated. Macrophage secrets chemicals to stimulate cell division of activated T cells.
Descrive antivody-mediated immunity: what kind of cells are involved?
*B cells respon only to a specific antigen
*A specific antigen activates a B cell and the B cell converts into a plasma cell producing antibodies to attack the antigen
*A macrophage engulfs, processes, and presents the antigen on the surface so they can be recognized by B cells and helper T cells