A and P

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A and P
2011-11-20 16:11:07

The Heart
Show Answers:

  1. Name the three layers of the heart wall from from outside to inside:
    Epicardium, Myocardium, Endocardium
  2. Where is the apex of the heart? The base?
    • Apex: (bottom) pointed inferior end at the level of the 5th rib
    • Base: (top) superior part at the level of the 2nd rib
  3. What makes up the cardiovascular system?
    heart and blood vessels
  4. Give the specific location of the heart:
    mediastinum of thoracic cavity
  5. Name the two divisions of the pericardium: how do they help reduce friction on the heart?
    • Visceral (on heart) and Parietal (surround cavity) pericardium
    • They secrete serous fluid into the pericardial cavity to reduce friction
  6. Which layer of the heart wall constitutes the majority of the wall?
  7. Upper heart chambers:_____Function?____
    Lower heart chambers:_____Function?____
    • Atria-receive blood from veins of the body and lungs
    • Ventricles-receive blood from the atria and pump blood into the lungs and body
  8. The layer of the heart containing blood vessels:_____
  9. What divides the atria and ventricles on the left side from those on the right side of the heart?
  10. Fibrous connective tissue preventing the A-V valves from being forced back into the atria during contraction:
    chordae tendineae
  11. Name the two types of A-V valves and give their location:
    • Tricuspid: right, between the right atrium and right ventricle
    • Bicuspid(mitral): left, between the left atrium and the left ventricle
  12. Epithelial tissue lining the heart chambers:
  13. The muscular layer of the heart wall:
  14. How do the pulmonary semilunar valves differ from the aortic semilunar valve?
    • Pulmonary s-l valve: found at the base of pulmonary trunk and prevents backflow into the right ventricle
    • Aortic s-l valve: at the base of the aorta and prevents backflow into the left ventricle
  15. The contracting phase of the cardiac cycle:_____location?
    • Systole
    • Atria and ventricles
  16. The relaxation phase of the cardiac cycle:_____location?
    • Diastole
    • Atria and ventricles
  17. Give the cause for the first and second heart sounds?
    • 1st Lub- close A-V valves during ventricular systole
    • 2nd Dub- close of S-L valves during ventricular diastole
  18. The two veins draining deoxygenated blood into the heart:
    Superior and Inferior vena cava
  19. The vein draining the head, neck, and shoulder areas:
    Superior vena cava
  20. Vein draining the legs and lower body parts:
    Inferior vena cava
  21. If the heart is to contract, impulses must reach the ______.
  22. What is the name of the pacemaker of the heart? Where is it located?
    • S-A node
    • right atrium at the junction of superior vena cava
  23. Describe the conduction of an impulse through the heart beginning with the pacemaker and naming all structures involved in contracting the atria and ventricles:
  24. Which chamber receives oxygenated blood from the lungs? Which vessels?
    • Left atrium (only chamber)
    • Pulmonary veins
  25. Trace blood through the heart chambers beginning with its entry into the right atrium: name all blood vessels, valves, etc.
  26. How does the pulmonary circuit differ from the systemic circuit?
    • Pulmonary carries deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle to the lungs and oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium.
    • Systemic circuit carries oxygenated blood to all of the body except the lungs and returns deoxygenated blood to the right atrium.
  27. Instrument for transforming electrical current picked up by electrodes into a recording:______
  28. The actual recording for an electrocardiograph?
  29. Compare the P, QRS, and T waves:
  30. What is the advantage of the heart contraction beginning at the apex?
    Forces blood into pulmonary trunk and aorta
  31. How many layers in the walls of arteries? veins? capillaries?
    • 3
    • 3
    • 1
  32. If arteries and veins have the same structure, why do arteries have higher blood pressure?
    They have more smooth muscle and elastic connective tissue
  33. Vessels carrying blood away from the heart:_____toward the heart:_____
    • arteries
    • veins
  34. What is the relationship amont arterioles, capillaries, and venules?
  35. Compare the pressures of arterioles, capillaries, and venules?
    • Arterioles-high
    • Capillaries-low
    • Venules-least
  36. The most numerous and smallest blood vessels:
  37. What per cent of the total blood volume will be in the veins at any one time?
  38. Which tissues have the greatest number of capillaries? Name at least three areas lacking capillaries:
    • Greatest: Muscle and nerve tissue
    • Lacking: Epidermis, lens, and cornea of eye
  39. Which vessels carry blood to the cells?
  40. The two main parts of blood are_____ and_____.
    • Plasma
    • Formed elements
  41. Packed cell colume:
  42. A lack of red blood cells or lack of hemoglobin:
  43. The solvent of all living systems:
  44. Name some solutes found in the plasma: what is the per centage of water in plasma?
    • nutrients, enzymes, hormones, antibodies, electrolytes, wastes, gases, albumin, proteins
    • 90%
  45. Give the normal pH range for blood:
  46. List four functions for blood:
    • 1) Carries nutrients to the cells from the digestive system.
    • 2) Carries oxygen from the lungs to the cells and CO2 from the cells to lungs
    • 3) Carries hormones from the endocrine glands
    • 4) Carries nitrogenous waste to kidneys
  47. What per cent of bloos is plasma?___formed elements?____
    • 55%
    • 45%
  48. Compare the volume of blood in males and females:
    • Males 5-6 L (have more RBCs)
    • Females 4-5 L
  49. The other name for red blood cells:______
    for white blood cells:______for platelets:_____
    • Erythrocytes
    • Leukocyte
    • Thrombocytes
  50. The pigment inside red blood cells with an affinity for oxygen:
  51. What is the significance of the biconcave shape of RBCs?
    to increase surface area
  52. How does RBC concentration vary with sex and altitude?
    Men have more RBC than female
  53. The mother cells for all blood cells:
  54. During what part of their life cycle will RBCs have a nucleus?
    While in the marrow
  55. How does the site of RBC production differ before birth and in adulthood?
    before birth RBC are produved by liver and spleen, in adulthood RBC are produced by red marrow of skull, ribs, sternum, vertebrae, pelvic bones, and ends of long bones.
  56. The hormone regulating RBC formation:_____
  57. What is the main function of WBCs? Where are most WBC functions performed?
    • They provide for defense against disease organisms.
    • Most functions are performed in the tissues.
  58. What property allows WBCs to move from the bloodstream to the site of tissue injury?
    WBCs are capable of passing through capillary walls. (amoeboid movement)
  59. Another term for clotting:
  60. Another term for clumping:
  61. How do procoagulants differ from anticoagulants?
    • Procoagulants are substanes that promote clotting.
    • Anticoagulants are substances that inhibit clotting.
  62. When monocytes move into tissues, they become known as______.
  63. Which WBCs are the first on the scene at the time of injury?
  64. The largest WBCs:______the smallest WBCs:______
    • Monocytes
    • Lymphocytes
  65. The process of engulfing that is a characteristic of WBCs:
  66. Type of WBC which plays a vital role in immunity:
  67. How does the work of T-lymphocyes and B-lymphocytes differ?
    • T-directly attack bacteria and viruses
    • B-produce antibodies that attack bacteria and bacterial toxins
  68. Most abundant leukocytes: _____
  69. Release histamine causing swelling in allergic reactions:____
  70. The category for neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils:
  71. The category for lymphocytes and monocytes:
  72. Describe the clotting process in sequence beginning with a break in the skin and ending wiht the actual clot: give the source of all substances:
  73. Proteins on the cell membrane of erythrocytes:
  74. Antibodies in the plasma involvd in blood typing:
  75. What is the meaning of the Rh factor?
    + or -
  76. What are the only two agglutinogens?
  77. Name two forces aiding the return of venous blood to the heart:
    Skeletal muscle contraction and respiratiory movements
  78. Where does blood have the greatest pressure?_____(vessel) the least pressure?_____(vessel)
    • Aorta
    • Capillaries
  79. What is the advantage of the slow speed in the capillaries?
    Allws for more exchange of materials
  80. The top figure in a blood pressure reading: ______the bottom figure: _____
    • Systolic
    • Diastolic
  81. How do you determine pulse pressure?
    Systolic - Diastolic = pulse pressure (mm mercury)
  82. Why is a surface artery used for checking pulse?
    So you can feel the expansion of the elastic arterial walls
  83. An expansion and contraction of the elastic arterial walls during systole and diastole:
  84. The smalles unit of lymphatic ducts:
    lymphatic capillaries
  85. Compare lymph with interstitial fluid:
    • Lymph- clear watery fluid in lymphatic vessels closely resembling blood plasma but having less protein than plasma, own vessels
    • Interstitial fluid- complex fluid filling the spaces between cells with less protein than plasma
  86. How does the protein content of lymph and interstitial fluid compare with that of plasma?
    Lymph and interstitial fluid have less proteins than plasma
  87. What is the composition of extracellular fluid?
    blood plasma and interstitial fluid
  88. What is the source of lymph in the left thoracic duct? What is its fate?
    It drains the entire body except the upper right quadrant and drains into the left subclavian vein which drains to the superior vena cava
  89. What is the source of lymph in the right lymphatic ducts? What is its fate?
    Upper right quadrent and drains into the right subclavian vein
  90. How does the interstitial fluid enter the lymph vessels?
    Through cleffs in the lymph vessel walls
  91. Name some differences between veins and lymphatic vessels:
  92. How is it possible for lymphatic vessels to absorb some substances that are not absorbed by the blood capillaries?
    High degree of permeability of lymphatic capillary walls
  93. Number of layers in the walls of lymph vessels: ___ lymphatic capillaries: ___
    • 3
    • 1
  94. By what process do lymph vessels regenerate?
  95. How is is possible for proteins in the interstitial fluid to return to the blood?
    through the lymphatics
  96. Mechanisms targetting specific invaders: name the two types of cells:
    • Specific immunity
    • T cells and B cells
  97. Mechanisms acting on many invaders: name the cells involved:
    • Nonspecific immunity
    • neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages, and NK cells
  98. Does specific immunity or nonspecific immunity act more readily?
  99. What is species resistance?
    genetic characteristics of humans protects us against diseases from other species
  100. What is the benefit of inflammation?
    Isolates pathogen and stimulates arrival of immune cells
  101. What is your first line of defense?
    Skin and mucous membranes
  102. What are NK cells? How do they function?
    • Natural killer cells
    • Kill cancer cells and virus infected cells
  103. A group of plasma proteins causing lysis of foreign cells"
  104. How does interferon work?
    Chemicals are secreted by cells that have become infected by virus. Inhibits spread of virus.
  105. The process of ingestin pathoges and breaking them down: _______Name two kinds of WBCs having this property:
    • Phagocytosis
    • Neutrophils and Magrophages
  106. Descrive cell-mediated immunity and tell which kind of cells react:
    A macrophage engulfs an antigen, parially digests it, and carries it to the cell surface for display. T cells with receptors to fit the antigen will react with the antigen and become activated. Macrophage secrets chemicals to stimulate cell division of activated T cells.
  107. Descrive antivody-mediated immunity: what kind of cells are involved?
    • *B cells respon only to a specific antigen
    • *A specific antigen activates a B cell and the B cell converts into a plasma cell producing antibodies to attack the antigen
    • *A macrophage engulfs, processes, and presents the antigen on the surface so they can be recognized by B cells and helper T cells