mycology

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Author:
victoriageexd
ID:
118171
Filename:
mycology
Updated:
2011-11-20 19:45:46
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Microbiology
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mycology
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  1. List 5 fungi characteristics :
    • 1.) Eukaryotic organisms- can be unicellular or multicellular
    • 2.) Require organice compounds for energy and as a carbon source.
    • 3.)Mainly terrestrial organisms
    • 4.)Prefer slightly moist environments and a temperature range of 20C - 35C
    • 5.)Most are aerobic but some are facultative anaerobes and carry out alcoholic fermentation (S. cerevisiae)
  2. Economic importance of Fungi:
    • Producation of Beer, wine, and bread.
    • cheese production
    • Penicillin, griseofulvin as well as other antimicrobials are made from fungi.
  3. Fungi and Food spoilage:
    Fungi can grow in drier, more acidic, higher osmotic pressure environment than bateria, thus causing spoilage of fruits, grains, vegatables, and jams
  4. Fungi in genetic and biochemical studies:
    Yest genetically engineered to produce human insulin
  5. * Fungi
    • Is non-motile (non-flagellated eukaryotic cells that
    • -have definite cells walls composed of chitin.
  6. How does fungi reproduce?
    reproduce by means of spores or budding. Asexually or sexually.
  7. What does the Fungal cell membrane contain ?
    • contains ergosterol and zymosterol (not cholesterol)
    • - Amphotericin B active against ergosterol synthesis.
  8. What are 2 Morphological forms of FUNGI ?
    Yeast & Moulds
  9. What is Yeast ?
    Spore germinates to produce round, oval, or elongated single cells that reproduce mostly by budding (some by fission) forming moist or mucoid colonies.
  10. What are Moulds ?
    • Filamentous fungi that are well adapted to absorb nutrients. Includes : Hyphae – a single filament that may be interrupted at various intervals by septa or be continuous (nonseptate or coenocytic [multinucleated] hyphae)
    • contains –Haustoria – hyphal tip that can penetrate animal or plant cell walls to gain nutrients and –Rhizoids
    • - short root-like hyphae which anchors saprophytic fungi (i.e., Rhizopus) onto substrate
    • •Mycelium
    • – a collection of hyphae (mushrooms, puff balls)
  11. 2 types of FUNGI ?
    Saprophytes & Dimorphic
  12. What is saprophytes ?
    Acquire nutrients from dead or dying material (soil, rotten vegetation, wood)
  13. What is Dimorphic ?
    Grow as either a yeast or mold, depending on environmental conditions and temperature (usually a yeast at body temperature)
  14. How is Fungi classified ?
    Based on sexual reproduction
  15. What are the 4 groups of Sexual reproduction for fungi ?
    1.)Zygomycetes (Zygospores)

    2.)Basidiomycetes (basidiospores)

    3.)Ascomycetes (ascospores)

    • 4.)Deuteromycetes or
    • Fungi Imperfecti (sexual reproduction has not been observed)
  16. How does Fungi cause disease ?
    • Can cause disease in one of 4 ways:
    • Allergic reaction: Result from inhaling fungal spores (hay fever orasthma)

    • React to fungal toxin (mycotoxins): Many have hallucinogenic properties (LSD). Certain species produce alflatoxin implicated in cancer.
    • Mycoses: Fungi grows on or in the body
    • Economic impact: Destroy human food supply causing starvation

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