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List 5 fungi characteristics :
- 1.) Eukaryotic organisms- can be unicellular or multicellular
- 2.) Require organice compounds for energy and as a carbon source.
- 3.)Mainly terrestrial organisms
- 4.)Prefer slightly moist environments and a temperature range of 20C - 35C
- 5.)Most are aerobic but some are facultative anaerobes and carry out alcoholic fermentation (S. cerevisiae)
Economic importance of Fungi:
- Producation of Beer, wine, and bread.
- cheese production
- Penicillin, griseofulvin as well as other antimicrobials are made from fungi.
Fungi and Food spoilage:
Fungi can grow in drier, more acidic, higher osmotic pressure environment than bateria, thus causing spoilage of fruits, grains, vegatables, and jams
Fungi in genetic and biochemical studies:
Yest genetically engineered to produce human insulin
- Is non-motile (non-flagellated eukaryotic cells that
- -have definite cells walls composed of chitin.
How does fungi reproduce?
reproduce by means of spores or budding. Asexually or sexually.
What does the Fungal cell membrane contain ?
- contains ergosterol and zymosterol (not cholesterol)
- - Amphotericin B active against ergosterol synthesis.
What are 2 Morphological forms of FUNGI ?
Yeast & Moulds
What is Yeast ?
Spore germinates to produce round, oval, or elongated single cells that reproduce mostly by budding (some by fission) forming moist or mucoid colonies.
What are Moulds ?
- Filamentous fungi that are well adapted to absorb nutrients. Includes : Hyphae – a single filament that may be interrupted at various intervals by septa or be continuous (nonseptate or coenocytic [multinucleated] hyphae)
- contains –Haustoria – hyphal tip that can penetrate animal or plant cell walls to gain nutrients and –Rhizoids
- - short root-like hyphae which anchors saprophytic fungi (i.e., Rhizopus) onto substrate
- – a collection of hyphae (mushrooms, puff balls)
2 types of FUNGI ?
Saprophytes & Dimorphic
What is saprophytes ?
Acquire nutrients from dead or dying material (soil, rotten vegetation, wood)
What is Dimorphic ?
Grow as either a yeast or mold, depending on environmental conditions and temperature (usually a yeast at body temperature)
How is Fungi classified ?
Based on sexual reproduction
What are the 4 groups of Sexual reproduction for fungi ?
- 4.)Deuteromycetes or
- Fungi Imperfecti (sexual reproduction has not been observed)
How does Fungi cause disease ?
- Can cause disease in one of 4 ways:
- –Allergic reaction: Result from inhaling fungal spores (hay fever orasthma)
- –React to fungal toxin (mycotoxins): Many have hallucinogenic properties (LSD). Certain species produce alflatoxin implicated in cancer.
- –Mycoses: Fungi grows on or in the body
- –Economic impact: Destroy human food supply causing starvation