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H. antecessor.....Theres two caves where fossils are found: Sima del Efante & Gran Dolina (Oldest). tools found considerd to be oldowan culture. Remains at both sites are fragmentary& hard to assign a specicies to.
Describe Homo antecessor
Remains found in atapueca region. Tools found at sites are oldowan culture. Remains closely resemble dmanisi fossils
Kabwe/ Broken Hill
South Africa, H. heidelbergensis remains found here.Complete cranium found. Mixture of older and more recent charactierstics found in these premodern specimens. Possible close relative to H.erectus and H. sapiens in africa.
Continuation of erectus/ergaster.....found in Africa and Europe. Triats in common with ergaster,erectus, sapiens and neandertals.
- Subspecies of H.sapiens.. seen as an earlier more primitive H. sapien. Transitional status- "archaic H.sapiens".
- -- H.erectus->H.heidelbergensis->H.sapiens
- * Sloping skulls, receding forhead,large brain, walk upright. little robust arms/legs
- * suffered less than other neandertals.
- ** Neandertals derived from them in Europe&Asia
- **Modern H.sapiens dervied from them in Africa.
La Chapelle Aux-Saints
Important Neandertal discovery. Skeleton found in flex posistion. One scientist found that because of this, its not a fully erect biped. But recent findings show arthritus on the spine. Larg cranial size, and other neandertal characterisitcs. But this one is more robust, and goes outside range of variation
West European (france) Neandertals from St.Cesaire
Findings suggest Chatelperronian tool industry.
Chatelperronian Tool Industry
Upper paleolithic, similar to middle paleolitic Mousterian tool industry. Neandertals thought to be associated with this culture.
Why are St.Cesaire and Vendija sites are important..
because modern humans were living in western and central europe about 35,000 kya, which is at the same time as neandertals. At these sites, neandertals are found, so its possible that neandertals and H. sapiens lived close to eachother
Tool Industries found in association with modern H.sapiens and neandertals
Mousterian tool industry. before Chatelperronian cultur
Chatel. tools (upper paleolitic) are similar to Mousterian tools (middle paleolithic). They were both tool industries during the upper paleolithic. Both tools may be associated with Neandertls and H.sapiens
Genetic Evidence of Neandertals
- DNA has been extracted from over a dozen remains dating from 100,000 to 32,000 kya. Sites from E&W europe. Results show that theres a bigger genetic difference in H.sapiens and neandertals than is in Modern human populations with other modern human populations.
- Conclusion: Neandertal lineage serparated from our modern H.sapiens ancestors lineage between 690,000 & 550,000 kya
Neandertal post cranial morphology
- Origins traced to about 800,000-550,000 ya
- **Robust, pretty thick muscular
- **distal shortening of leg&arms
- **large joints, barrel shaped chest.
- ** Shovel shaped incisors
- **tourodant molars
Middle Pleistocene era, in northern spain.Homo antecessor... Possibly represent early H. heidelbergensis species. Like other
Sima De los huesos
"Pit of bones". Site in a cave in same area as Gran Dolina & Sima del Efante. More than 4,000 fossil fragments discoverd, making this site contain more than 80% of all missle pleistocene hominin remains in the world.. Maybe early neandertal morphology
Nearly complete crania found in Ethipoia, shows a combination of retained ancestral and modern characteristics. Middle Pleistocene, making it one of the oldest specimens of H. heidelbergensis from Africa. Possibly victim of defleshing by other hominins
African premodern fossils
there are general similarities in premodern african fossils, indicating a close relationship. So typically placed into a single species: H.heidelbergensis. Found similar to those found in europe.
Specimens in china have both ancestral and modern characteristics. Some H.erectus characteristics are found in remains at Zhoukoudian site. Some of these features can be found present in china. Modern chinese didnt evolve from H.sapiens in either europe or africa, but from a separate H.erectus species in China.
- Asian H. heidelbergensis. Lots in common with other heidelbergensis. Most complete skull of the late middle or earlier upper pleistocene fossils in China. Displays both H.erectus & H.sapiens traits.
- **smaller face than bodo and some heidelbergensis
- ** receding forhead, heavy brow ridges.
Lagar Velho site
4 yr old child skeleton found that has neandertal traits and also modern human triats H.sapiens. Child dated to about 24,000 ya which is at least 5,000 yrs later than the last neandertal found. Also was associated This suggests interbreeding of the two species in western europe. with upper paleolithic tool industry.
8 adults & 2 infant skeletons of neandertals in this site in Iraq. Findings of burial ceremonies ( which were thought only to be with Cromagnons), complex socialization skills, and taking care of other injured hominins.walked upright and were more sophisticated cultually than previously assumed.
Sima del Efante
Cave site in Atapueca Spain. H.antecessor....Oldest found in western Europe, 2nd oldest fossil found other than Dmanisi. very primitive. oldowan tool use.
- H.sapiens evolved in Africa from heidelbergensis. Kabwe site..
- *large browridges&brain
- *low forhead
- *dental abcess
- *flat area on back of skull ( common amoung sapiens)
condition found in molar teeth. present in neandertals.
Neandertal cranial morphology
- Large brains
- occipital bun
- progmathis mid face
- no canine fossa or chin