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PSY101 memorry learning operant conditioning
Chapter about operant conditioning
_____________ conditioning is usually better than classical at explaining voluntary behaviors.
Developed the concept of operant conditioning.
B. F. Skinner
Form of associative learning in which the consequences of a behavior change the probability of the behavior's occurrence.
Operant conditioning (or instrumental conditioning)
An operant behavior occurs
Consequence depends on behavior
States that behaviors followed by positive outcomes are strengthened and that behaviors followed by negative outcomes are weakened
Thorndike's law of effect
Rewarding approximations of a desired behavior
Midbrain area / an extension of the__________ that plays a vital role in our learning to repeat a rewarded behavior
nucleus accumbens (Nac) / amygdala
Researchers have found that the neurotransmitter______ plays a crucial role in the reinforcement of behaviors
Process by which a rewarding stimulus or event following a particular behavior increases the probability that the behavior will happen again.
Pleasant or rewarding consequences of a behavior fall into two types
positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement
In positive reinforcement, the frequency of a behavior increases because it is followed by the
presentation of something that is good.
In negative reinforcement, the frequency of a behavior increases because it is followed by the
removal of something unpleasant.
T or F In this case, “positive” and “negative” have nothing to do with “good” and “bad.”
Innately satisfying; does not take any learning on the organism's part to make it pleasurable
Acquires its positive value through an organism's experience; learned or conditioned
Secondary reinforcers can be used in a system called a
In a token economy behaviors are rewarded with ________ that can be exchanged later for desired _____
tokens / rewards
In operant conditioning, means performing a reinforced behavior in a different situation.
In operant conditioning, means responding appropriately to stimuli that signal that a behavior will or will not be reinforced
In operant conditioning, occurs when a behavior is no longer reinforced and decreases in frequency
When a reinforcer follows a behavior only a portion of the time
Specific patterns that determine when a behavior will be reinforced
Schedules of reinforcement
Involve the number of behaviors that must be performed prior to reward
Refer to the amount of time that must pass before a behavior is rewarded.
In a _____ schedule, the number of behaviors or the amount of time is always the same.
In a _____ schedule, the required number of behaviors or the amount of time that must pass changes and is unpredictable from the perspective of the leamer
A _____ schedule reinforces a behavior after a set number of behavior
Behaviors are rewarded an average number of times but on an unpredictable basis.
Produce high, steady rates of behavior more resistant to extinction than the other three schedules.
Ratio schedules of reinforcement are based on the
number of be of behaviors that occur
Interval reinforcement schedules are determined by the
time elapsed since the last behavior was rewarded.
A fixed-interval schedule reinforces the first behavior after
a fixed amount of time has passed
A variable-interval schedule is a timetable in which a behavior is reinforced after
a variable amount of time has elapsed.
A consequence that decreases the likelihood that a behavior will occur.
In ___________ punishment, a behavior decreases when it is followed by the presentation of an unpleasant stimulus.
In ____________ punishment, a behavior decreases when a positive stimulus is removed.
In operant conditioning, the __________ the interval, the more efficient the learning.
Humans also respond to _______ reinforcers
The use of operant conditioning principles to change human behavior
Applied behavior analysis (also called behavior modification)
A manager who rewards his or her staff with a casual-dress day or a half day off if they meet a particular work goal is employing
applied behavior analysis.