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the ability to influence a group towards the achievement of a vision of set of goals.
the ability to influence that arises outside the formal structure of the organization, is ofthen important or more important than formal influence. Leaders can emerge from within a group as well as formal appointment
trait theories of leadership
theories that consider personal qualities and characteristics that differentiate leaders and non leaders.
charismastic, enthusiastic, and courageous.
- EI- emotional intelligence
- why EI important? a core component of EI is empathy. Empathatic leaders can sense others needs, listen to what followers say and read the reactions of others.
First traits can predict leadership. BIG FIVE. Second traits do a better job predicting the emergence of leaders and the appearance of leadership than actually distinguishing between effective and ineffective leaders
Behavioral theories of leadership
- theories proposing that specific behaviors differentiate leaders from non leaders
- advantages over trait theories.
OHIO STATE STUDIES two accounted of leadership behavior described by employees. Researchers called initiating structure and consideration.
INITIATING STRUCTURE-extent to which a leader is likely to define and structure his or her role and those of employees in the search for goal attainment. Organize work, work relationships, and goals.
CONSIDERATION-extent to which a person job relationships are characterized by mutual trust, respect for employees ideas, regard for their feelings. Friendly and approachable
- MICHINGAN SURVEY RESEARCH-
- employee oriented leader- emphasized interpersonal relationships by taking taking a personal interest in the needs of employees and accepting individual differences among them .
- production oriented leader- emphasized the technical or task aspects of the job, concern focused on accomplishing the groups task.
employee leadership is related is similar to consideration , production is similar to initiating structure.
the first comprehensive contigency model for leadership was developed by fred fiedler.
proposes that effective group performance depends on the proper match between the leaders style and the degree to which the situation gives the leader control.
- LPC least preferred co-worker questionnaire to identify that style by measuring whether a person is task or relationship oriented.
- -after assessing an indiviuals basic leadership style through the LPC question we match the leader with situation
- 1. Leader-member relations- is the degree of confidene, trust, and respect members have in their leader.
- 2. Task Structure- is the degree to which the job assignments are procedurized (structured, unstructured)
- 3.Position Power- the degree of influence a leader has over power variables such as hiring, firing, discipline, promotions, salary increases
-matching leaders and situations.
-evaluation.But the logic underlying the LPC questionanaire is not well understood, and respondents scores are not stable. the contigency
FIDELEr assumes an individuals leaership style is fixed. This means if a situation requires a task oriented leaders and the person in the leadership position is relationship oriented, either the situation has to be modified or the leader has to be replaced to achieve optimal effectiveness.
OTHER CONTIGENCY THEORIES
though LPC theory is most researched contgency theory, three others deserve mention
- -situational leadership theory SLT focuses on the followers.
- bases on the readiness or the extent to which they are willing and able to accomplish a specific task.
path goal theory-
- if follwers unable and unwilling= the leader needs to give clear and specific directions
- if followers are unable and willing= the leader needs to display high task orientation to compensate for followers lack of ability and high relationship orientation to get them to buy into the leaders desires.
- if followers are able and willing=do not need to do much.
extracts elements from the OHIO state leadership research on initiating structure and consideration and the expectancy theory of motivation. leaders jobs to provide followers with info, support, or other resources necessary to achieve goals.
leader particpation model- relates leadership behavior and participation in decision making. Victor Vroom and Phillip Yettons leader participation model relates leadership behavior and participation in decision making.
leader member exchange theory
a theory that supports leaders creation of in groups and out groups subordianates with in group status will have higher peformance ratings, less turnover, and greater job satisfaction.
max weber a sociologist, defined charisma from the greek word gift more than a century ago-a certain quality of an individual personality by virtue of which he or she is set apart from oridnary people and treated as endowed with supernatural, supherhuman, or at least specifically exceptional powers of qualitites.
Robert house said charismatic leadership theory followers attribute herioic or extraordinary leadership abilities when they observe certain behaviors. extraverted self confident, achievement oriented
how do charismatic leaders actually influence followers?
- four step process
- -begins with articulating vision, a long term strategy for attaining a goal by linking the present with a better future for the organization,
- -second, a vision is incomplete without an accompanying vision statement, a formal articulation of an organizations vission or mission.
- -next , through words and actions the leader conveys a new set of values and sets an example for followers to imitate.
- -finally the charismatic leader engages in emotion inducing and often conventional behavior to demonstrate courage and conviction about the vision.followers catch the emotions their leader is conveying.
does effective charismatic leadership depend on the situation?
research shows impressive correlations between charismatic leadership and high performance and satisfaction among followers.
the dark side of charismatic leadership
unfortunately charismatic leaders who are larger than life dont necessarily act in the best interests of their organizations. many used their power to remake cmpanies in their own image and allowed their own interest and personal goals to override the goals of the organization.
leaders who inspire followers to transcend their own self interests and who are capable of having profound and extraordianry effect on followers
leaders who guide or motivate their followers in direction of established goals by clerifying role and task requirements
know who they are know what they believe in and value and act on those values and belifs openly and candidly. their followers conside them ethical people.
how tranformational leadership works
more effective bc they ar emore creative but also bc they encourage those who follow them to be creative too.greater dectralization of responsiblity, manager have more propensity to take risks, and compensation plans are geared toward long term results, all of which faciliate corporate enterpreneurship,.
in summary transformational leadership is
more strongly correlated than transactional leadership with lower turnover rates, higher productivity, lower employee stress and burnout , and higher employee satisfaction.
transformation versus charismatic leadership
synonymus calling the differences modest and minor.
a positive expectation that another will not act opportunistically. only a trust leader will be able to envourage employees to reach beyond themselves to a transformational goal.
how is trust developed
- 1.integrity- refers to honesty and truthfulness.
- 2.benevelonce-the trusted person has your interests at heart, even if yours arent neccessarily in line with theirs.
- 3.Ability- encompasses an indiviuals technical and interpersonal knowledge and skills.
refers to how likely a particular employee is trust a leader.
consequences of TRUST
- -trust encourages risks
- -trust facilitates info sharing
- -trust groups are more effective
- -trust enhance productivity
senior employee who sponsors and supports a less experienced employee called a protege
attribtion theory of leadership
a leadership theory that says that leadership is merely an attribtion that people make about other individuals.
identification based trust
- substitues- attributes such as experience and training that can replace the need for a leaders support or ability to create structure
- neutralizers- attributes that make it impossible for leader behavior to make any difference to follower outcomes.
- based on mututal understanding of each others intentions and appreciation of the others wants and desires, is particularly difficult to achieve without face to face interaction.
defining the situation= after assesing an indicviduals basic leadership style through LPC questionnaire we match the leader wtih the sitaion.
3 contingency or situational dimensions:
- 1. Leaders memeber relations- the degree of confidence, trust and respect members have in their leader.
- 2. Task structure- the degree to which the job assignments are procedurized
- 3.Position power = the degree of influence a leader has over power variables such as hiring, firing, discipline, promotions and salary increases.
identification based trust
trust bases on a mutual understadning of each others intentions and appreciation of each others wants and desires.