Psychology Exam 3
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Define group bias
Our tendency to make favorable, positive attributions for behaviors by members of our in-group and unfavorable, negatgive attributions for behaviors by members of out-groups
Define hindsight bias and be able to identify examples
- Is the tendency, after an event has occured, to overestimate one's ability to have foreseen or predicted the outcome.
- "I could of told you that would happen" or "I can't believe they couldnt see that coming"
A negative attitude toward people who belong to a specific group
A cluster of characteristics that are attributed to members of a specific grour pr catagory
What is cognitive dissonance?
Is an unpleasent state of psychological tension that occurs when there's an inconsistency between two thoughts or perceptions
What is ethnocentrism?
The belief that one;s culture or ethinc group is superior to others
What is puberty and at approx what age does it occur?
The physical process of attaining sexual maturation and reproductive capacity that begins during the early adolescent years
What is social categorization?
Is the mental process of classifying people into groups on the basis of common characteristics
What are social norms?
The "rules" or expectations, for appropritate behavior in a paticular situation
Helping another person with no expectation of personal reward or benefit
What is social cognition?
The mental propcess people use to make sense of their socail envioroment
What is social influence?
The effects of situational factors and other people on an individual's behavior.
Know info on the "feel-good, do-good" principle.
People who feel good, successful, happy, or fortunate are more likey to help others.
Know information on attachment.
The emotional bond between an infant and her caregivers, (Parents)
What is sense of self?
An individuals unique sense of identity that has been influenced by social, cultural, psychological experinces. Your sense of who you are in relation to other people.
What is gender?
The cultural and social meanings that are associated with maleness and femaleness
What is the human genome project?
The complete set of DNA in the human organism.
What is developmental psychology?
The study of people change physically, mentally, and socially throughout the life span
What is social psychology?
Investigates how your thoughts, feelings, and behavior are influenced by the presence of people and by the social and physical envirioment.
Informant on the Milgram Obedience Study.
SHock treatment, Perfomance of a behavior in a response to a direct command
What is a teratogen? Examples
- Harmful agents or substances that can cause malformations or defects in an embyro or fetus.
- Exposure to radiation, Toxic chemicals and metals
- Viruses And bacteria
Correct order (3 stages) of prenatal development.
- The germinal peroid
- The embryonic period
- The fetal period
How can human development be best characterized?
Gradual and unfolding changes throughout the lifespan.
What did Erikson mena by "ego integrity"?
The feeling that one's life has been meaningful
What is the definition of genotype?
Sperm, The set of 23 chromosome pairs represents your genotype
What is conformity?
Adjusting your opinions, judgements, or behavior so that it matched the opinions, judgements, or behavior or norms of a social group.
What is a zygote?
The single cell formed at conception from the union of the egg and sperm cell.
What is an embryo?
The single-celled zygote has developed into a cluster of cells
Identify person perception.
Mental process we use to form judgements and draw conclusions about the characteristics of other people
What are the 3 basic parenting styles?
- The authoritarian style
- The permissive style
- The authoritative style
Information on secure attachment.
When parents are consistently warm, responsive, and sensitive to the infants needs
"Blaming the victim"
The tendency to blame an innocent victim of misfortune for having somehow caused the problem or for not having taken the stepsto avoid it
What is phenotype?
The observable traits or characteristics of an organism as determined by the interaction of genetics and enviromental factors
Information on Kubler Ross and stages of dying.
- Interviewed more than 200 terminally ill patients.
- 1. Denial
- 2. Anger
- 3. Bargain (Make a deal)
- 4. Depressed
- 5. Accept their fate
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