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Mousterian Tool industry
- Middle paleolithic (after acheulian&oldowan)
- **Neandertals, H.heidelbergensis, and H.sapien sites in europe.
- **reduction in tool size, more sophisticated.
- **smaller, flake-based tools: knives, points, scrapers, denticulates (serrated flakes)
- "prepared core technique" where tool maker takes stone core and prepare it with the idea already created.
- **capacity for planning and abstract thought
- tool formed from 2 or more parts.
- *hunting, preparing meat, skinning, woodworking
wooden spears found in germany, throwing/ thrusting spears
neandertals is a phase only in europe. european fossil hominins went through a phase before becomming modern humans
- motivated by discovery of piltdown.
- Neandertals=side branch..thrown out
neandertal phase model
neandertals=world wide phase not just in europe..also thrown outtt
- **all neandertals were "diseased" humans hoax
- ** Piltdown: H.sapien skull found with oranguatan jaw. said that brain size was larger before the were bipedal. but we know that bipedalism evolved first before the eolution of larger brains.
Upper Paleolithic climate
- *ocean temps reached their lowest, and lots were frozen.
- *Last Glacial Maximum
- *N&C Europe= permafrost long winters, low temps
Last Glacial Maximum
20-18 kya, it was the time of maximum glacial appearance during the last glacial period.
Laurentide ice sheet
Weichselian ice sheet
Patangonia ice sheet
- canada & n america
- Northern europe
- south america
Upper Paleolithich subsitence/mortality
- * game hunters, and gatherers.
- *food storage
- *during this time, ppl dont have serious injuries like the those of neandertals.
- *high child mortality, women=shoter lives
Upper Paleolithic: Burials
- * Rituals&ceremonies..ivory beads.
- Sungir site in russia
Upper paleolithich: Social organizations
- Social relationships, communal relationships
- *bigger sites, more frequent sites
- *prermanent housing ( Pushkari & Mezhirich in the UK) reconstruction of mammoth bone hut found at Mezhirich.
Upper paleolithich Tools
- * more complex
- *Direct percussion
- *indirect percussion- precise hitting on core
- *pressure flaking- sharpen blades
- *Atlatal (spear throwing)
Upper Paleolithic tool industries
- 1) Aurignacian (oldest) in europe..burins (pienceing and engraving)..blades..scrapers
- 2) Graveltian in france. ...lots of bone&ivory tools. hunt mammoths
- 3)Solutrean SW france and spain..laurel leafe points
- 4) Magdalenian W. europe
Africa..realy small bone and antler tools
South africa..shell beads fround.
upper paleolithic art
- **portable= engraved objects, sculptures
- ** Venus figurines
- *engraving, painted walla
- **hall of bulls in LASCAUX CAVE in france
Omo Kibish site
Ethiopia- earliest modern human found in africa or anywhere. two swkulls found, one thats more modern the other much more robust and less modern
Herto cranium found in ethiopia, its the best preserved early modern H.sapiens cranium found yet.
Skhul Cave at Mt. Carmel
10 individual H.sapiens found
Near Mt.Carmel, 20 individuals that are definitely modern but have some premodern characteristics
France site with H.sapiens fossils. Associated with late Aurignacian tool industry. "old man" race of upper paleolithic europe.
Liang Bua Cave in flores indonesia
very small bodied and small brained hominim discovered. woman about 3 ft tall. Probably derived from erectus. Astonishing because these ppl were still living on flores just 13,000 ya
Evolutionary mechanism...explanation for the dwafism of elephants adn hominins on flores island. smaller body size will survive better because there are less resources on island.
The remains found on Flores island are so different than the supposed erectus speices they derived from...so they are given a new species. resemble cranial bone & dentition of erectus
used with paleo indians to hunt bison.