anatomy lec 4
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Where is Grey matter found on the brain?
Which type of matter is Mylanted?
What kind of matter is the Corpus calloson made of?
What/ are the "Gyri (gyrus)?
The folds on the brain that raise up.
What are the "Sulci (sulcus)?
The indentations or creases on the brain.
What are "Fissures"?
The larger dividing sulci that divide areas of the brain.
What is the distribution of grey matter and white matter in the brain and spinal cord?
Brain- gray matter outside, white matter inside.
Spinal cord- White matter outside, grey matter inside.
Name and discribe the 3 differect Meninges.
Duramater- tough outer covering.
Arachnoidmater- spider web like covering.
Piamater- thin vascular layer directly covering the brain and spinal cord.
Where is the Subdural space located?
located beneath the duramater.
Where is the Epidural Space located?
Located above the duramater.
What is Meningitis and 2 types known.
inflammation of the meninges, can be viral or bacterial.
Name the 4 brain ventricles.
Paired Lateral- 2 lateral ventricles (largest)
Third- Hypothalamus and thalamus (including)
Cerebral Auqeduct- goes from 3rd ventricle to 4th ventricle.
What does the Cerebral spinal fluid do, name the color, and where is it found?
Clear, protective, suspends brain (floats), washes away waste products brings in nutrition.
Found around the brain and spinal cord goes to dural sac.
Explain the Blood brain barrier? (6)
1) most things can not get in
2) exceptions are medication and bacteria.
3) tight junctions between cells.
4) Astrocytes (protective cells)
5) Endothelium inner lining of blood vessels
6) very thin
Central nervous system controls what?
controls immediate responses (reflexes)
What is included a brain stem? (8)
- 1) medulla oblongata
- 2) pons
- 3) mid brain
- 4) thalamus
- 5) hypothalamus
- 6) cerebellum
- 7) cerebrum
- 8) cerebral cortex
What is the function of the medulla oblongata? (6)
cardiac, vasomotor and respiratory centers, controls heart, breathing and temperature.
What is the function of the Pons? (7)
Sleep, hearing, taste, swallowing, bladder control, eye movement, and equilibrium (balance).
What is the function of the Mid Brain?
Controls coordinated limb movement.
What is the function of the Thalamus?
Gateway to cerebral cortex, mainly sensory neurons.
What is the function of the Hypothalamus? (4)
hormone control, temperature, food and water intake, thirst and hunger.
What is the function of the Cerebellum?
smooth coordinated movements and balance.
What are the functions of the Cerebrum and cerebral cortex? (5)
3) voluntary motor control
5) learning emotions
What does the pineal gland do? (2)
controls day and night cycles
triggers sexual maturation
What is the function of the spinal cord?
electrical pathways between brain and rest of the body.
What are Reflexes?
sensory input to spinal cord, that causes a motor response..... brain is left out for the moment!
(emergency signal to move your hand when touching something hot)
Name the total amount of spinal nerves, the 5 spinal nerve locations and how many nerves in that location.
1) 31 spinal nerves total.
2) 8 cervical
3) 12 thoracic
4) 5 lumbar
5) 5 sacrum
Cervical and Lumbar enlargements (brachial and lumbar)?
Brachial plexus- all the spinal nerves that combine to intravate the arm.
Lumbar/Sacral plexus- both supply the nerve sensations to the legs.
Where is the end point of the spinal cord located?
Between L1 and L2.
What is Cuada Equinae?
Horses tail, begins after L2 and looks like a horses tail.
Dorsal and Ventral Horns of the grey matter of the spinal cord control?
Dorsal Horns- sensory (incoming information)
Ventral Horns- Motor neurons
What is Polio, and whats the entire name?
Motor neuron damage caused by a virus
What is ASL and whats the full name?
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
Causes paralysis, muscle atrophy, and muscle shrinkage.
What are Ganglia?
Cell bodies of a neuron outside of the central nervous system.
What are Dermatomes?
Areas of skin innervated by a particular spinal nerve.
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