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refers to a capacity that A has to influence the behavior of B so B acts in accordance with A's wishes.
most important aspect of power: dependency-B's relationship to A when A possesses something that B requires.
control bc they have something you desire.
how is leadership and power different
power does not require goal compatibility merely dependence. leadership requires some congruence between the goals of the leader and those being led.
leadership focuses on the downward influence on followers. emphasizes style. questions like : How supportive should a leader be?
TYPES OF POWER
we answer by dividing the bases or sources of power into two general groupings, formal and personal, and then breaking into smaller gorups.
formal-based on an individuals position in an organization. come from the ability to coerece or reward, or from formal authority.
1.coercieve power- base depends on fear of the negative results from failing to comply.
2.reward power-opposite of coercive, people comply bc it produces positive benefits; someone who can distribute rewards others view as valuable will have power over them
3.legitimate power- formal authority to control and use organizational resoucres based on structural position
PERSONAL POWER -which comes from an individuals unique characterisics.
expert power- is influece wielded as a result of expertise, special skills, or knowledge.
referant power- based on identification with a person who has desirable resources or personal traits. develops out of admiration of another and desire to be like that person.
which bases are more effective
- formal- (coercive, reward, legitamate)
- persoanl- (expert, referant) is MOST IMPORTANT to have and effective.
ways in which individuals translate power bases into specifc actions
- -legitmacy-relying on authority position or saying a request accords with organizational policies or rules
- -rational persuasion- presenting logical arguements and factual evidence to demonstrate a request is reasonable.
- - inspirational appeals-develiping emotional commitment by appealing to a targets values, needs, hopes, inspirations
- -consultation- increasing the targets support by involving him or her in deciding plan
- -exchange- rewarding the target with benefits or favors in exchange following request
- -personal appeals- asking for compliance based on friendship or loyalty
- -ingratiation-using flattery, praise, or friendly behavior prior to making request
some power tactics more effective than others
rational persuasion, inspirational appeals, and consultation
most effective power tactic getting a raise
rational persuasion- doing the hw
work best as a downward-influecning tactic with subordiantes.
any unwanted activity of a sexual nature that affects an individuals employment and creates a hostile work enviroment.
following are some ways managers can protect themselves and employees from sexual harrassment
- 1. make sure an active policy defines what consitutes sexual harrassment, informs employees they can be fired for sexually harassing another employee, and established procedures for how complaints can be made.
- 2. ensure employes that they will no encounter retaliation if they issue a complaint
- 3.investigate every complaint and include the legal and human resource departments
- 4.make sure offenders are disciplined or terminated
- 5. set up in house seminars to raise employee awareness of the issues surrounding sexual harassment.
activites that are not required as part of a persons formal role in the organization but that influence or attempt to influence the distribution of advantages and disadvantages within the organization.
legitamate political behavior- normal everyday politics
illegitimate political behavior- extreme political behavior that violates the implied rules of the game."play hardball"
process by which individual attempt to control the impression of others form of them.
studies undertaken to test the effectiveness of IM techniques have related it to two criteria
interview success and performance evaluations
essentially they focus on the use of power to affect decision making in an organization or self serving and organizationally unsanctioned behaviors.
legitmate political behavior- refers to noral everyday poitics- compaining to your supervior by passing the chain of command, forming coalition, obstructing organizational policies or decisions through inaction or ecessive adherence to rules, and developing contacts outside the organization.
illegitimate politcal behavior- violates the implied symbolic prtoests sucha as wearing unorthodox dress or portest buttions and calling in sick as a group.