Earth Science Topic 11

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Author:
artie325
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11828
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Earth Science Topic 11
Updated:
2010-03-28 20:33:46
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Earth Science Rocks Minerals
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Study Guide for Regents Earth Science: Earth Materials
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  1. non-living
    inorganic
  2. organic
    once living
  3. What is a mineral?
    a naturally occuring, inorganic, crystalline solid having a definite chemical composition

  4. What type of structure is this?
    crystal
  5. Name four ways minerals are identified.
    By: Color, streak, luster, hardness, density, cleavage, and cyrstal structure
  6. What property of a mineral can be observed by the color of the powder the mineral leaves behind?
    Streak
  7. What property of a mineral can be seen by the way it is reflected under light?
    luster
  8. The resistance of a mineral to being scratched is what property?
    Hardness
  9. How is the density of a mineral or substance calculated?
    Divide the mass by the volume. Density=mass/volume

  10. The tendancy of a mineral to break along zones of weakness and form smooth to parallel sides is called:
    Cleavage
  11. The outward geometric shape of a mineral in the crystal form is called:
    crystal structure
  12. Uneven breaking of surfaces is called:
    fracture
  13. How are crystals formed?
    Crystals are formed by inorganic crystalization (organizing atoms to make solids) and by recrystalization of atoms in the form of a solid, liquid or gas.

  14. Using Mohs harness scale, what is the softest mineral?
    Talc

  15. Using Mohs harness scale, what is the hardest mineral?
    Diamond

  16. Using Mohs harness scale, what mineral had a hardness of 5?
    Apatite
  17. Loose rock material which includes soil is called:
    regolith
  18. What is the name of the solid rock beneath the regolith?
    Bedrock
  19. What is the difference between a rock and a mineral?
    A rock is made of two or more minerals, a mineral is composed of only one type of substance.
  20. If a rock is said to be monomineralic, how many minerals are in it?
    One
  21. If a rock is said to be polymineralic, how many minerals are in it?
    two or more

  22. According to the chart above from your ESRT, what two elements make up about 75% of the earth's crust?
    Oxygen and Silicon
  23. The size, shape and arraingement of the materials that a rock is composed of is called:
    texture
  24. What are individual grains of minerals called?
    Mineral Crystals
  25. What are rocks that were formed from an accumulation of sedements from pre-existing rocks of organic material called?
    Sedimentary rocks
  26. What is the process called when sand, silt, and pebbles are cemented together?
    cementation
  27. How are clastic sedimentary rock composed of and how are they made?

    Rock composed of solid sediments, such as sand in limestone, or tiny pieces of clay in shale cemented together over time.
  28. What type of rocks are fossils mainly found in?
    • Sedimentary rocks
  29. What are igneous rocks?
    Rocks formed when natural, molten (Liquid) rock-forming material cools and turns into a solid
  30. What is magma?
    Liquid rock beneath Earth's surface.
  31. When magma cools to form rocks above the Earth's surface, what type of igneous rocks are formed, intrusive or extrusive?
    extrusive igneous rock
  32. When magma cools to form rocks beneath the Earth's surface, what type of igneous rocks are formed, intrusive or extrusive?
    intrusive igneous rock

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