PYS EXAM3 to remember slides nutrition

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PYS EXAM3 to remember slides nutrition
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2011-11-21 17:01:02
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PYS EXAM3 remember slides NUTRITION
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PYS EXAM3 to remember slides nutrition
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  1. Energy balance can be described by a simple equation:
    ______ = _______+_________
    Energy in(diet)=Energy out(living) + Energy stored(fat)
  2. Body mass homeostasis is maintained when _______
    energy in equals energy out
  3. Macronutrients provide different amounts of energy:
    Carbs = __________
    17 kJ/g
  4. Macronutrients provide different amounts of energy:
    Proteins = ___________
    17 kJ/g
  5. Macronutrients provide different amounts of energy:
    Fat = _________
    38 kJ/g
  6. The recommended energy ratio is _____:______:_____
    55%Carbs : 15%Protein : 30%Fat
  7. Energy expenditure is determined by ________ ; __________ ; and _____________
    resting metabolic rate ; thermic effect of feeding ; and physical activity
  8. Macronutrients provide different amounts of energy:
    Alcohol = ______
    30kJ/g
  9. Resting Metabolic Rate is relatively constant for the same individual, but highly variable among different individuals due to:
    fat-free mass ; age ; gender ; physical activity
  10. Thermic effect of feeding:
    ~ ___% of the energy ingested
    effect can last for ___ hrs
    higher for ____ & ____ than ____
    • ~ 10% of the energy ingested
    • effect can last for 5 hrs
    • higher for proteins & carbs than fats
  11. What is MET?
    • a numerical multiple of RMR used to describe the energy expenditure of various physical activites
    • ex: lawn mowing MET = 4 ; basketbball MET = 8
  12. What is PAL?
    • Physical activivty level (PAL) = ratio of total energy expenditure to RMR
    • PAL = total daily energy expenditure / RMR
    • ex: PAL = 10/6 = 1.6 (elite athletes can be as high as 5)
  13. Carbohydrates are polymers of sugars that can be classified based on size as ____ ; ____ ; ______ and __________
    mono-;di-;oligo-; and poly-sacharrides
  14. Carbs are stored as glycogen in the ____ and ____ and as glucose in the ______
    liver and muscle ; blood
  15. Carbs are an excellent source of energy but _________
    you store very little
  16. What are the 4 main functions of carbs in the body?
    • 1) energy homeostasis
    • 2) form carbon skeletons of amino acids
    • 3) glycoproteins - i.e. mucins, antibodies, clotting factors
    • 4) proteoglycans - "junk" between cells
  17. The Glycemic Index describes what?
    • how quickly a food enters the blood as glucose
    • GI of 100 means the food enters the blood as quickly as pure glucose
  18. Non-essential fatty acids _____________
    can be made by the body via lipogenesis in the liver, stimulated by insulin
  19. Essential fatty acdis ____________
    must be taken in the diet
  20. omega-6 (______ acid) is from ________
    omega-6 (linoleic acid) is from plant oils
  21. omega-3 (________ acid) is from ________ & ______
    omega-3 (alpha-linolenic acid) is from salmon & flax
  22. Lipids are essential for what 3 functions in the body?
    • 1) energy storage
    • 2) membrane fluidity
    • 3) building other molecules (cholesterol-->hormones)
  23. Lipoproteins are lipids combined with proteins in order to ______________________
    make them miscible in water
  24. Lipoproteins transport ________ through the body
    fats
  25. The lipoprotein CHYLOMICRONS:
    made in the _________
    transport lipids from food into ______ & _______
    ______ lived in the blood
    critical for transporting ___________
    • made in the intestines
    • transport lipids from food into blood & liver
    • short lived in the blood (~15-30mins)
    • critical for transporting A,D,E,and K to the liver
  26. The lipoprotein VLDL:
    made in the ______
    transport fatty acids from _______ to _______
    • made in the liver
    • transport fatty acids from liver to heart/muscle/adipose
  27. The lipoprotein LDL:
    the remainder of _______
    primarily _________
    transport _________ to _________
    • the remainder of VLDLs
    • primarily cholesterol
    • transport cholesterol to the liver and other tissues
  28. The lipoprotein HDL:
    made in the ____________
    transport ________ from _______ to _________
    • made in the liver and intestine
    • transport cholesterol from tissues to liver
  29. After water, _______ are the the major constituent of your body
    proteins
  30. Protein turnover accounts for ____% of your resting ATP requirement
    20%
  31. Most of your protein mass is found in the muscle as ____&_____; blood as _____; and skin as ________
    Most of your protein mass is found in the muscle as MYOSIN & ACTIN ; blood as HEMOGLOBIN ; and skin as COLLAGEN
  32. The quality of foods in terms of indispensable amino acids:
    _______>______>_______>________
    animal proteins>legumes>cereals>tubers
  33. The 4 indispensible amino acids we need to know are:
    threonine, methionine, tryptophan, lysine
  34. Methionine is high in ___________ but low in _________
    high in cereals and sesame seeds, but low in legumes
  35. Lysine is high in ________, but low in _________
    high in legumes, but low in cereals
  36. Threonine is high in ______, but low in _______
    • high in animal products, legumes, sesame seeds
    • low in rice (essentially absent)
  37. tryptophan is high in ___________, but low in _____
    • high in animal products, legumes, sesame seeds
    • low in corn (essentially absent)
  38. tryptophan is the precursor for __________ synthesis
    seratonin / melatonin
  39. __________ is characterized by emaciation whereas __________ is characterized by emaciation AND edema
    Marasmus ; Kwashiorkor
  40. Marasmus is caused by ___________
    an absolute deficiency of protein
  41. Kwashiorkor is caused by ____________
    unknown, but may relate to micronutrients and/or aflatoxins
  42. For mice on unrestricted diets, methionine _____ lifespan
    reduces
  43. For flies on restricted diets, methionine _______ lifespan without reducing __________
    increases ; reproduction
  44. ______ describes the J-shaped cureve between the dose of a substance and ist effect on health
    Hormesis
  45. Ancesterak human diets were __________ from modern human diets, mainly lower in __________
    very different ; lower in fats and carbs
  46. Humans may have evolved a stong preference for ____/____/_____/______ because they were ______________
    sugars/fats/salts/alcohols ; beneficial at low doses found in nature
  47. What may help explain the current health epidemics of obesity, CHD, hypertension, and alcoholism?
    Our strong preference for sugars/fats/salts/alcohol combined with near limitless access to them
  48. What are the 4 forms of vitamin A?
    beta-carotene, retinol, retinoic acid, and retinal
  49. What foods are good sources for vitamin A?
    animal foods and caroteniod vegetables
  50. Vitamin A is stored in the liver as ________, which can be converted to ______ and ______
    retinOL; retinAL and retinoic acid
  51. Retinoic acid is a critical regulator of ________ and of __________
    gene expression; epithelial cell differentiation
  52. Retinoic acid deficiencies can lead to _______, _______ and __________
    xeropthalmia, repiratory infections, and developmental problems
  53. Xeropthalmia (dry eyes) and respiratory infections due to reduced retinoic acids are because of _________
    keratinization
  54. Developmental and fertility problems are due to vitamin A deficiency because it affects _________
    cell differentiation
  55. Night blindness can be due to ___________
    retinAL deficiency
  56. RetinAL is critical for detection of _____ by _________
    detection of light by the rods in your eyes
  57. Vitamin D deficiency can lead to _______ in children and _________ in adults. It may also be linked to _________.
    rickets in kids ; osteomalacia in adults ; may be linked to MS
  58. Vitamin E is a potent _______
    antioxidant
  59. Vit E is a fat soluble antioxidant. Why is it such a good antioxidant?
    It can accept up to 2 free radicals in the cell and keeps them bound so they can not damage the cell. (VitE + ** = VitE**) Also, it can be regenerated witht he help of VitC. (VitE*+VitC = VitE)
  60. Vitamin K is necessary for forming _________ acid
    γ-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla)
  61. γ-carboxyglutamic
    acid (Gla) is critical for making ___________
    • clotting factors
    • (*think VitK = "Klotting" or "Koagulation")
  62. Vit K is found in what 2 main resources?
    found in green veg and synth'd by bacteria in large intestines
  63. Why is Vit K not found in newborns?
    Vit K cannot be stored and neonates do not posses the gut bacteria to produce it for them. Also, they are not eating leafy green vegetables
  64. The B vitamins largely function as enzyme _______
    cofactors
  65. Of the B vitamins, which can be stored and which can not? What are good sources of B vitamins?
    • Only Vit B12 is stored
    • cereals and animal products are good sources
  66. Vit B1 (thiamine) is a necessary cofactor for what?
    carbohydrate metabolism
  67. Thiamine (Vit B___) deficiency can lead to what?
    • Thiamine = B1
    • Beriberi - reduced ATP available for the heart, damage to peripheral nerves
    • Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome-chronic alcoholics have high carbs and poor nutrition
  68. Vit B2 (aka _______) is a major constituent of _______. Deficiency primarily affects _______
    Vit B2 (aka riboflavin) is a major constituent of FAD. Deficiency primarily affects fast-growning tissues. (like the skin and mouth)
  69. Vit B3 (aka___) is a major constiuent of ____ and can be synth'd from _________ in the presence of ______.
    Vit B3 (aka Niacin) is a major constiuent of NAD and can be synth'd from tryptophan in the presence of B6 .
  70. Vitamin B3 deficiency can lead to ________
    pellagra
  71. Vit B6 is a cofactor necessary for the synth of _____, ________, and _________.
    heme, neurotransmitters, and niacin
  72. B6 deficiency can lead to ______, _______, and _______
    anemia, mental abnormalities, and pellagra
  73. Vit B12 and folic acid are critical for ___________
    nucleotide synthesis
  74. Vit B12 is stored in the _____
    liver
  75. Vit B12 and folic acid deficiency affects _______ and can lead to ________ and _________
    Vit B12 and folic acid deficiency affects fast growing tissues and can lead to anemia and spinal cord degeneration
  76. Vit C is a reducing agent that can ________. Deficiency results in ________.
    reactivate enzymes ; scurvy

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