BIOL 223 Chapter 13-3

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christophertkennedy
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118329
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BIOL 223 Chapter 13-3
Updated:
2011-11-21 12:56:50
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anatomy physiology spinal cord
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Study Cards for Chapter 13 BIOL 223 CSN
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  1. List the four major nerve plexuses.
    • cervical
    • brachial
    • lumbar
    • sacral
  2. Which spinal nerves form the cervical plexus?
    C1-C5
  3. What does the cervical plexus innervate?
    the neck and top part of the shoulders
  4. What nerve innervates the diaphragm?
    the phrenic nerve
  5. Which spinal nerves form the brachial plexus?
    C5-T1
  6. The brachial plexus innervates what three things?
    • shoulders
    • arms
    • fingers
  7. Hitting our "funny bone" is actually the pinching or compressing of the:
    ulnar nerve
  8. Constriction of the median nerve can lead to what condition?
    carpal tunnel syndrome
  9. What spinal nerves form the lumbar and sacral plexuses respectively?
    • Lumbar - L1-L5
    • Sacral - L4-S5
  10. The lumbar/sacral plexus innervates the:
    abdominal wall and legs
  11. Which nerve runs through the middle of the thigh and can cause pain or tingling due to it's compression in the back?
    the sciatic nerve
  12. Functional groups of neurons are known as:
    neuronal pools
  13. List the number of sensory, motor, and interneurons respectively.
    • sensory - 10 million
    • motor - 0.5 million
    • interneurons - 20 billion
  14. One neuron that branches off and then those branches branch off is an example of information _______.
    divergence
  15. Several neurons that synapse on a single neuron are exhibiting:
    convergence
  16. The processing information in a series of steps or locations is known as _______ processing.
    serial
  17. Divergence of information followed by serial processing in each branch is known as:
    parallel processing
  18. Increasing the initial stimulus through a positive feedback loop is known as:
    reverberation
  19. Which type of reflexes are present at birth?
    innate reflexes
  20. List the two ways that reflexes are classified based on development.
    • acquired
    • innate
  21. Reflex responses can be either:
    • visceral (autonomic)
    • somatic (skeletal muscle)
  22. When you label a reflex as either monosynaptic or polysynaptic, you are classifying based on:
    complexity
  23. List the two processing sites for reflexes.
    • brain
    • spinal cord
  24. List the five steps of the reflex arc.
    • receptors monitor the environment
    • sensory neuron carries stimulus through the dorsal root into the spinal cord
    • interneuron integrates sensory information and figures out the correct motor response
    • motor neuron carries response through ventral root
    • effector manifests motor response
  25. How does the stretching reflex work?
    by stimulating an antagonistic muscle to contract and relieve the stretch
  26. How does the tendon reflex work?
    by turning on/off antagonistic pairs of muscles to relieve stress on the tendon
  27. What does the cross extensor reflex allow you to do?
    pick up a foot and transfer weight to the other foot
  28. When you step on a tack with your right foot, your reflex response is to _______ your quads and _______ your hamstrings.
    inhibit, contract
  29. In order to transfer weight to your left foot, your hamstrings must _______ and your quads must _______.
    relax, contract
  30. Integration of sensory and motor information is done in the ________ matter of the spinal cord.
    gray

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