S&P test 5

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  1. Octave:
    The interval between two sound frequencies having a ratio of 2:1
  2. Tone height
    A sound quality corresponding to the level of pitch
  3. Tone height is monotonically related to:
  4. Tone Chroma:
    A sound quality shared by tones that have the same octave interval
  5. Chord:
    Acombination of three or more musical notes with different pitches played simultaneously
  6. Two characteristics of musical pitch:
    • 1. Tone height
    • 2. Tone chroma
  7. Tone height
    • vertical dimension
    • tones perceptually similar, physically quite different
  8. Tone chroma
    • horizontal dimension
    • tones perceptually different, physically more similar
  9. Music: instrument produce notes:
    below 4,000Hz
  10. Cords are created when;
    three or more notes with different pitches are played simultaneously
  11. A capella-
    without instrumental accompaniment
  12. Some relationships between notes, such as:
    octabes are universal
  13. Javanese culture has;
    fewer notes with in an octave, greater variation in note's acceptable frequencies
  14. Cultural differences extend to
    • scales
    • pentatonic sccale doh rah me so la to doh...
  15. Back masking:
    • a sound or message is recorded backwards onto a track that is meant to be played forward
    • Jeff Milner
  16. Music Agnosia:
    • inability to recognize/produce melodies
    • describe music as stressful noise
    • unable to descriminate the pitch of 2 successive tones
    • other forms of auditory perception are fine
    • is congenital in about 3% population
  17. Synesthesia:
    • Stimulation of one sensory system produces activity in two sensory systems
    • not sure od the cause
  18. Chromasthesia
    • Sounds produce auditory sensations and color sensations
    • *High pitches tend to produce brightcolors
    • *Low pitches tend to produce light colors
    • Not sure why music is tied to color sensations
  19. Flavor:
    The combination of taste and retronasal olfaction
  20. Retronasal olfaction:
    olfaction through the mouth
  21. Orthonasal olfaction:
    olfaction through the nostrils
  22. Brain processes odors differently depending on;
    whether they come from the nose or mouth
  23. Melody:
    An arrangement of notes or chords in succession
  24. Tempo:
    The perceived speed of the presentation of sounds
  25. 4 Types of papillae:
    • 1. Filiform papillae
    • 2. Fungiform papillae
    • 3. Foliate papillae
    • 4. Circumvallate papillae
  26. Filiform papillae:
    • cover the entire surface
    • no taste functionq
  27. Fungiform papillae
    • cover the surface of the tongue, especially the tip
    • People who can eat hot peppers dont have as many of these
  28. Foliate papillae
    Ridges along the sides of the tongue
  29. Circumvallate papillae
    Circular 6-12 on back of the tongue
  30. Taste buds
    embedded in the papillae
  31. taste buds go first to...
    the medulla, then to the thalamus, then (at the same time) go to the somatosensory cortex, the hypothalamus & amygdala, and the primary gustatory cortex. Then the orbitofrontal cortex
  32. The 4 basic tastes:
    • Salty
    • Sour
    • Bitter
    • Sweet
    • **Umami
  33. Salty:
    • Need sodium for nerves and muscles to function
    • Eating less salt increases our threshold for salt
    • Early experiences can modify salty preferences (like mother being morning sick during pregnancy...)
    • Gestational experiences may affect liking for salt
  34. Sour:
    • Comes from acidic substances
    • High concentrations of acid will damage external and internal body tissues
  35. Bitter:
    • Many bitter substances are poisonous
    • Cant distinguish between tastes that are bitter compounds
    • Bitter sensitivity is affected by hormone levels in women
  36. Sweet:
    Using artificial sweeteners may not be related to weight loss
  37. Umami:
    • A fifth taste?
    • Comes from monosodium glutamate (MSG)
    • A taste common in aparagus, tomatoes, cheese, and meat
    • MSG allergy: numbness, headache, sweating, tightness in chest
  38. How is taste coded?
    • 1. Labeled Line Theory
    • 2. Pattern Theory
  39. Labeled line theory:
    • One taste cell codes for one specific taste
    • More like the frequency theory, idea that only one cell will fire for certain things.(better explanation right now)
  40. Pattern Theory
    Brain must compare relative firing of various nerve fibers to determine taste
  41. Combination of bother labeled line and parttern theory:
    Seems that cells respond tomore than one basic taste but seems to be primarily responding to one particular taste
  42. Supertasters:
    • Supertasters: 25% of population
    • more likely to be women
    • more likely to be asian, nigs, or south americans
    • diagnosed by sensitivity to PROP (bitter things to eat)
  43. Nontasters:
    25% of populations
  44. Tasters
    50% of population
  45. Super tasters have:
    • much lower absoluter threshold
    • Perceive all tastes as more sensitivity
    • Dont like coffee, grapefruit, cabbage, brussel sprouts, spinach, grean tea, fatty foods
Card Set:
S&P test 5
2011-12-02 14:28:16
Music taste

chapter 11/12/14
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