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Conflict and conflict process
- conflict - is a perception
- -a process that begines when one party perceives another party has or is about to negatively affect something the first party cares about.
traditional view of conflict- conflict must be avoided that it indicates a malfunctioning within the group.
- its viewed negatively and discussed such with as violence, destruction and irrationality .
- 1930s aand 1940s.
The interactionist view of conflict-the belieft that conflict is not only a positve force in a group but also an absolute necessity for a gorup to perform effectively.
-functional conflict- supports the goals fo the group and improves its performance and is thus a constructive form of conflict
-dysfunctional conflict- hinders group performance
-task conflict- relates to the content and goal of work
-relationship conflict - focuses on interpersonal relationships.
-process conflict- relates how the workd gets done.
the conflict process has five stages : potenital opposition or incompatability, cognition and personalization, intentions behavior , and outcomes.
- stage 1: Potential oppositino or incompatability-the appearance of conditions that create opportunities for conflict to arise.
- -Personal variables(personality, emotion, values)
- Stage 2:Cognition and Personalization
- -percieved conflict(does not mean it is personalized
- -felt conflict(emotionally involved, parties experince anxitey , tension, frustration, or hostility)
- Stage 3 : INTENTIONS-intereven between people perceptions and emotions and their overt behavior. They are decisions to act in a given way.
- -competing(assertive and uncooperative)
- -collaborating(assertive and cooperative)
- -compromising(the degree to which one party attempts to satisfy the other partys concerns)
- -avoiding(unassertive and uncooperative)
- -accommodating(unassertive and cooperative)
- STAGE 4: BEHAVIOR(conflcit becomes visible)
- -party's behavior
- -others reaction
- STAGE 5: Outcomes
- -incresed group performance
- -decreased group performance
as a process that occurs when two or more parties decide how to allocate scarce resources.
two general appraches to negotiation-distibutive bargaining and intergrative bargaining.
- distributive bargaing- negotiation that seeks to divide up a fixed amount of resources; a win lose situation.
- fixed pie-set amount of goods or services to be divvied up..
-negotiation that seeks one or more settlements that can create a win win solution.
The Negotiation Process
- 1.Preparation and Planningwhat are your goals.Asess what you think are the others partys goals. What are they gonna request? Gather info develop a strategy
- BATNA-the best alternative to a negotiated agreement; the least the individual should accept
- 2. Defitnition of ground rulesyoure ready to begin defining with the other party the ground rules and procedures of the negotiatio itselft.
- 3. Clarification and justificationwhen you have exchanged initial positions, both you and the other party will explain , amplify, clarify, bolster, and justify original demands.
- 4.bargaining and problem solvingactual give and take in trying to hash out an agreement. This is where both parties will undoubtly need to make concessions
- 5.Closure and implentation. the final step in negotiation process is formalizing the agreement that has been worked out and developing any procedures necessary for implementation and monitoring.
three factors influence how effectively individuals negotiate: personality, mood/emotions, gender
can you predict anopponents negotiationg tactics if you know something about his/her personality?
Gender differences in negotiations- do men and women negotiate differently? a
- do moods and emtions influence negotiation? they do , but the way they do appears to depend on the type of negotiation.
- distributive negotiation, it appears the negotiators in a position of power or equal status who show anger negotiate better outcomes bc their anger induces concessions from their opponents.
- integrative negotiations- in contrast positve moods and emotions appear to lead to more integrative agreements.
nd does gender affect negotiation outcomes? the answer to fist qustions appears to be no. The answer to the second is qualified yes.
Third party negotiations
- four basic third party roles
- 1. mediator- a netural third party who facilitates a negotiated solution by using reasoning and persuasion, suggesting alternatives, and the like.
2.arbitator- a third party to a negotiation who has the authority to indicate an agreement.
3. concilator- a trusted third party who provides an informal communication link between the negotiator and the opponent.
4.consultant- an impartial third party, skilled in conflict management, who attempts to facilitate creative problem solving through communication and analysis
the traditional view took a shortsighted view in assuming all conflcit should be eliminated.
The interactionist view that conflict can stimulate active discussion without spilling over into negative, disruptive emotions is incomplete.
THE MANAGED CONFLICT- does recognize that conflict is probably inevitable in most organizations, and it fouses more on productive conflict resolution. The research pendulum has swung from eliminating conflict, to encouraging limited levels of conflict, and now to finding constructive methods for resolving conflicts productively so their disruptive influence can be minimized.