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Maintaining body temp within a narrow range is critical for the proper function of _________ in the body
"Normal" body temps vary depending on ______, _______, ________, _________
gender, time of day, repro cycle, the individual
Body temps above ________ and below ________ can cause serious damage
410C ; 250 C
Metabolism is ineffiecient; roughly 80% of burned energy is converted to _____ rather than _____.
heat rather than useful work
Metabolism can change with what 5 variables?
size, gender, feeding state, shivering thermogenesis, non-shiving thermogenesis
______________ convert energy stored in a proton gradient into heat
Uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) is found in ___________.
white and brown adipose tissue ; cardiac and skeletal muscles ; beta cells
Uncoupling protein 1 (UPC1) allows for _________ and is only found in brown adipose tissue
UPC2 may play a role in __________ removal
reactive oxygen species
What is the consequence of increased expression of UCP2 in beta cells?
reduced insulin production in response to glucose ---> type II diabetes
metabolic heat = __________ x __________x________
metabolic heat = metabolic rate (W/m2 ) x surface area (m2 ) x (1-efficiency)
The change in our body temp depends on what 5 processes?
- 1) we gain heat by metabolism
- 2) we lose heat by convection
- 3) we gain/lose heat by convection
- 4) we gain/lose heat by conduction
- 5) we gain/lose heat by radiation
Evaporative heat depends on _______________; __________________ and ____________________.
the difference in water vapor pressure between the skin and surrounding air ; the amount of skin that is exposed to the air ; air speed
Convective heat exchange in humans depends on what 3 factors?
- 1) the temp difference between the air close to the skin and surrounding air
- 2) the surface area of skin exposed to air
- 3) the convective heat transfer coefficient, hc
Conductive heat exchange in humans depends on what 3 factors?
- 1) the temp difference between the skin and surface
- 2) the surface are of skin touching the surface
- 3) the conductive heat transfer coefficient, hk
Radiative heat can be divided into 2 categories : solar "_________" and terrestrial "_______"
solar "short-wave" and terrestrial "long-wave"
Just memorize the following...