A&P

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Author:
Lbeaty
ID:
118391
Filename:
A&P
Updated:
2011-11-21 18:58:44
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Chapter 10
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Description:
Nervous System
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  1. Sensory Division
    picks up sensory information and delivers it to the CNS (Central Nervous System)
  2. Motor Division
    Carries information to muscles and glands
  3. Somatic
    division of the Motor Divsion: carries information to skeletal muscles
  4. Autonomic
    Division of motor division: carries information to smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands
  5. Functions of the nervous system
    • 1.) receiving stimuli: sensory function
    • 2.) deciding about stimuli: integrative function
    • 3.) reacting to stimuli: motor function
  6. Sensory funtion
    • -sensory receptors gather information
    • - information is carries to the CNS
  7. Integrative Function
    - Sensory information used to create: sensation, memory, thought, decision
  8. Motor Function
    • -Decisions are acted upon
    • - Impulses are carried to effectors
  9. White matter
    • -contains myelinated axons
    • - considered fiber tracts
  10. Gray Matter
    • -contains unmyelinated structures
    • -cell bodies, dendrites
  11. Major Groups of Neurons
    • - bipoloar neurons
    • - unipolar neurons
    • - multipolar neurons
  12. Bipolar Neurons
    • - contains two processes
    • - eyes, ears, nose
  13. Unipolar Neurons
    • - Contains one process
    • - ganglia of PNS
    • - Sensory
  14. Multipolar Neurons
    • - 99% of neurons
    • - contains many processes
    • - most neurons of CNS
  15. Sensory Neurons
    • - afferent
    • - carry impulses to CNS
    • - Most are unipolar
    • - Some are bipolar
  16. Interneurons
    • - Link neurons
    • - (association neurons or internuncial neurons)
    • - multipolar
    • - located in CNS
  17. Motor Neurons
    • -multipolar
    • - carry impulses away from CNS
    • - carry impulses to effectors
  18. Schwann Cell
    • - produce myelin found on peripheral myelinated neurons
    • - speed up neurotransmitters
  19. Satellite Cells
    - support clusters of neuron cell bodies (ganglia)
  20. Microglia
    • type of neuroglial cell
    • - CNS
    • - phagocytic cell
    • - keeps CNS clean
  21. Astrocytes
    • type of neuroglial cell
    • - CNS
    • - scar tissue
    • - mop up excess ions
    • - induce synapse formation
    • - connect neurons to blood vessels
  22. Oligodendrocytes
    • type of neuroglial cell
    • - CNS
    • - unmyelinating cell
  23. Ependyma or ependymal
    • type of neuroglial cell
    • - CNS
    • - ciliated
    • - line central canal of spinal cord
    • - line ventricles of brain
  24. Resting Potential
    • -polarized membrane
    • - inside of cell is negative relative to the outside of the cell
    • - 70 mV difference from inside to outside of cell
  25. Hyperpolarized
    • if membrane potential become more negative
    • - wont conduct an impulse
  26. Depolarized
    if membrane potential become less negative
  27. Action potential
    reaching threshold potential results in a nerve impulse starting this
  28. absolute refractory period
    time when threshold stimulus does NOT start another action potential
  29. relative refractory period
    time when stronger threshold stimulus can start another action potential
  30. synaptic transmission
    where released neurotransmitters cross the synaptic cleft and react with specific molecules called receptors in the postsynaptic neuron membrane
  31. Excitatory Postsynaptic Potential (EPSP)
    • depolarizes membrane of postsynaptic neurons
    • -action potential of postsynaptic neuron becomes more likely
  32. Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potential (IPSP)
    • Hyperpolarizes membrane of postsynaptic neuron
    • - action potential of postsynaptic neuron become less likely
  33. summation
    • EPSP's and IPSP's are added together in a process called this
    • - more EPSP's lead to greater probability of an action potential
  34. Neuropeptides
    • neurons in the brain or spinal cord synthesize these
    • - act as neurotransmitters
    • - examples: enkephalins, beta endorphin, substance P
  35. convergence
    • neurons receive input from several neurons
    • -incoming impulses represent information from different types of sensory receptors
    • - allows nervous system to collect, process, and respond to information
    • - makes it possible for a neuron to sum impulses from different sources
  36. divergence
    • one neuron sends impulses to several neurons
    • - can amplify an impulse
    • - impulse from a single neuron in CNS may be amplified to activate enough motor units needed for muscle contraction

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