Lab Quiz

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scherk87
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118408
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Lab Quiz
Updated:
2011-11-22 11:15:47
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PE Lab info
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Labs quiz
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  1. Analytic Variables
    Problems with test performance in lab - turbidity, hemolysis, hypoalbuminemia
  2. Analytic specificity
    Ability to detect a single specific substance
  3. Accuracy
    Clonesness with which an obtained rsult aggres with a known accepted true value
  4. Normal Range
    • Range of values in which a healthy person's test result is expected to fall
    • Most fall fall +/- 2SD
  5. Standard Chemical Profile
    • Lytes
    • Renal Function
    • Carbohydrate/Nutritional Status
    • Enzyme/Liver Screen
  6. Electrolytes
    • Sodium
    • Potassium
    • Chloride
    • CO2
    • Anion Gap
  7. Basic Panel
    • Electrolytes + Glucose
    • BUN
    • Creatinine
  8. Cardiac Panel
    • CPK
    • CKMB
    • Troponin-I
    • Myoglobin
  9. Lipid Panel
    • Cholesterol
    • Triglycerides
    • HDL
    • LDL
  10. Liver Panel
    • AST
    • ALT
    • Bilirubin
    • Alkaline Phosphatase
    • Total Protein
    • Albumin
  11. Thyroid Test Profile
    • TSH
    • + Free T4 = abnormal
  12. Bone/Mineral Test
    • Calcium
    • Phosphorus
    • Magnesium
    • PTH
    • Alk Phos
  13. Diabetes Chemistry
    • Glucose
    • HA1C
    • Ketones
    • Lactic Acid
    • C-Peptide
  14. Inflammatory Marker
    C-Reactive Protein
  15. Tumor Markers
    • PSA (prostate)
    • CEA (colorectal)
    • hCG (pregnancy)
    • AFP (liver,ovarian)
  16. Alanine Transaminase
    • ALT
    • Liver, skeletal muscle
  17. Alkaline phosphatase
    Bone, liver, intestine
  18. Aspartate Aminotrasnferase
    • AST
    • Heart, liver, red cells, skeletal muscle
  19. Lactic Dehydrogenase
    • LDH
    • heart, liver, lung, kidney, red cell
  20. Amylase
    pancreas, salivary glands
  21. Lipase
    Pancreatitis
  22. High albumin indicates
    dehydration
  23. Hight alkaline phosphatase
    • bone growth/disease
    • liver disease
    • leukemia
    • mlaignancies to bone/liver
  24. High direct bilirubin
    • hepatitis
    • cirrhosis
    • neoplasm
    • biliary disease
  25. High total bilirubin
    • hepatitis
    • cirrhosis
    • neoplasm
    • alcoholism
    • hemolytic disease
    • biliary obstruction
    • anorexia
  26. High calcium
    • dehydration
    • hyperparathyroidism
    • kidney disease
    • bone cancer
    • high vitamin D/A or Calcium intake
  27. High BUN
    impaired kidney function
  28. High CO2
    • COPD
    • emphysema
    • pneumonia
  29. High chloride
    • dehydration
    • high sodium
    • kidney disase
  30. high creatinine
    • kidney damage or infection
    • prostate disease
    • Urinary tract obstruction
  31. High glucose
    • diabetses
    • hyperglycemia
  32. High Potassium
    • excessive potassium intake
    • hyperkalemia
    • kidney failure/damage
  33. High total protein
    • dehydration
    • high levels of albumin/globulin
  34. High ALT
    • liver disease
    • hepatocyte injury
    • hepatitis
    • drug therapy
    • biliary disease
  35. High AST
    • alcoholism
    • cirrhosis
    • hepatitis
    • drug therapy
    • biliary disease
  36. High Sodium
    • hypernatremia
    • dehydration
  37. High Phosphorus
    • hypoparathyroidism
    • DKA
  38. Low albumin
    • liver disease
    • nephrotic syndrome
    • heart failure
    • low intake/absorption of protein
  39. Low alkaline phosphatase
    • zinc deficiency
    • hypothyroidism
    • Vicamin C/B6 deficiency
    • Excessive Vitamin D intake
  40. Low Direct/Total Bilirubin
    Not a concern/not monitored
  41. Low BUN
    not usually monitored
  42. Low Caclium
    • parathyroid gland problems
    • intestinal absorption problems
  43. Low CO2
    • cirrhosis
    • liver failure
  44. Low Chloride
    • low sodium
    • emphysema
    • chronic lung disease
  45. Low creatinine
    not a concern but may be due to decreased muscle mass/pregnancy
  46. Low Glucose
    hypoglycemia
  47. Low potassium
    • hypokalemia
    • dehydration
    • acetaminophen overdose
  48. Low total protein
    liver or kidney disorder
  49. Low ALT
    not generally a concern/monitored
  50. Low AST
    • uremia
    • Vitamin B6 deficiency
    • Drug Therapy
  51. Low Sodium
    • hyponatremia
    • Fluid retention
    • too much water intake
  52. Low Phosphorus
    • hypercalcemia
    • overuse of diuretics
    • hypothyroidism
    • Chronic antacid use
  53. Manifestation of Low sodium
    neurologic depression
  54. manifestation of high sodium
    neurologic excitation
  55. manifestation of low potassium
    arrhythmias
  56. Manifestation of high potassium
    • bradycardia
    • cardiac arrest
  57. Manifestation of low calcium
    tetany
  58. Manifestation of high calcium
    • muscle weakness
    • polydipsia, anorexia, dehydration
  59. Manifestation of low phosphorus
    muscle weakness - respiratory
  60. Manifestation of low magnesium
    • anorexia, nausea, twitching
    • Changes in reflexes
  61. Manifestation of high Magnesium
    • muscle weakness
    • confusion
    • decreased reflexes
  62. Manifestation of low glucose
    • altered mental status
    • coma
  63. Manifestation of high glucose
    • Extreme thirst
    • excessive urination
    • fatigue
    • coma
  64. Manifestation of high liver enzymes
    • Jaundice
    • Lethargy
    • Coma
  65. Manifestation of high lipids
    stroke
  66. Manifestation of high cardiac enzymes
    cardiac damage
  67. Manifestation of low thyroid hormones
    • fatigue
    • slow movement and slow speech
    • cold intolerance
  68. Manifestation of high thyroid hormones
    • warm moist skin
    • sweating
    • hair/weight loss
    • palpitations
    • tachycardia
    • nervousness
  69. CBC count
    WBC, RBC, HGB, HCT, MCV, MCH, MCHC, PLT, RDW
  70. Reticulocyte Count
    ability to make red cells
  71. Hemoglobin electrophoresis
    analyzes type of hemoglobin and defects
  72. Anemia Profile
    • Iron
    • TIBC/UIBC
    • TSAT
    • Ferritin
  73. B12/Folate deficiency
    Megaloblastic anemias
  74. PT/INR testing
    • Coagulation
    • extrinsic pathway defects
    • Monitoring Coumadin therapy
  75. PTT Testing
    • Partial Thromboplastin Time
    • Monitoring heparin therapy
  76. DIC
    • Disseminated Intravascular Clotting
    • Bleeding and Clotting at the same time
  77. Serology
    presence or absence of antigens or antibodies to infectious agents
  78. Serology Screening Tests
    • Rapid Strep
    • C-Diff Toxin
    • RPR/VDRL
    • Monospot
    • Hepatitis
    • HIV
  79. RPR/VDRL
    Syphilis
  80. Crossmatch
    assures blood to be transfused is compatible with recipient
  81. RhIG screen
    Screens for pregnant women who are Rh(D) negative
  82. Hemoglobin
    Oxygen carrying capacity
  83. hematocrit
    % blood volume occupied by RBCs
  84. Mean cell Volume (MCV)
    average size RBC
  85. Mean cell hemoglobin (MCH)
    Average heme in RBC smear
  86. Mean Cell Hemoglobin Concentration (MCHC)
    Average concentration of heme per unit volume of RBC
  87. Reticulocyte count
    % new or young RBC
  88. Leukocytosis
    • Elevated WBC
    • > 10,000
  89. Leukopenia
    • Decreased WBC
    • < 4,000
  90. WBC Differential Pneumonic
    Newborn Little Monkeys Eat Bananas
  91. Granulocytes
    • neutrophils
    • Basophils
    • Eosinophils
  92. Agranulocytes
    • Lymphocytes (T/B cells)
    • Monocytes
  93. Drug induced increased WBC
    • heparin
    • ASA
    • Steroids
    • Adrenaline
    • Allopurinol
    • Chloroform
    • epinephrine
    • Quinine
    • Triamterine
  94. Drug induced decreased WBC
    • Chemotherapy
    • Antibiotics
    • Diuretics
    • AnticonvulsantsAntihistamines
    • Antithyroid drugs
    • barbiturates
    • Sulfonamides
  95. Appendicitis Tests
    • WBC
    • Lytes
    • BUN
    • Creatinine
    • CT scan
  96. Pancreatitis Tests
    • Lipase
    • Amylase
    • Serum Trypsin
    • Abd X-ray
    • Abd CT/US
    • MRCP/ERCP
  97. MRCP
    Identifies a stone
  98. ERCP
    Removal of stone
  99. Cholecystitis Tests
    • WBC
    • HIDA Scan - obstructed duct
    • US - shows inflammation/dilation of ducts but not obstruction
    • CT
  100. Abdominal Obstruction Test
    • Adominal X-Ray
    • Lytes
    • BUN
    • Creatinine
    • CBC
    • BE, EGD, Colonoscopy
  101. Abdominal Pain Testing
    • CBC
    • Lytes
    • BUN
    • Creatinine
    • Calcium
    • Albumin
    • Urinalysis
    • Amylase
    • Lipase
  102. Gastritis Tests
    • Serial Hb
    • INR
    • PTT
    • Platelet
    • NGT/EGD
  103. Abdominal ulcer labs
    • Serial Hb
    • INR
    • PTT
    • Platelet
    • EGD/NGT
  104. Varices labs
    • Serial Hb
    • PT
    • PTT
    • Platelet count
    • EGD
  105. Mallory-Weiss Syndrome Tests
    Serial HbPTPTTPlatelet countEGD
  106. UGI Bleeding Tests
    • CBC
    • INR
    • PTT
    • Lytes
    • BUN
    • Creatinine
    • AST
    • ALT
    • Albumin
    • Calcium
  107. Diverticulosis/AVM testst
    • Bleeding Scan
    • Arteriogram
    • Colonoscopy
    • Serial Hb
    • PT
    • PTT
    • Platelet count
  108. Abdominal Tumor labs
    • CBC
    • INR
    • PTT
    • bleeding scan/ateriogram
    • Colonoscopy
  109. Fistula Labs
    • CBC
    • INR
    • PTT
    • Arteriogram
    • colonoscopy
  110. Hemorrhoid Labs
    • CBC
    • INR
    • PTT
    • Colonoscopy
  111. Colitis labs
    • CBC
    • INR
    • PTT
    • Colonoscopy
    • Arteriogram
  112. LGI Bleed Labs
    • CBC
    • INR
    • PTT
    • Lytes
    • BUN
    • Creatinine
    • AST
    • ALT
    • Albumin
    • Calcium
    • colonoscopy
    • +/- Bleeding scan/arteriogram
  113. CNS N/V labs
    • Lytes
    • BUN
    • Creatinine
    • Calcium
    • CBC
    • CT/MRI
  114. Common N/V causing medications
    • Erythromycin
    • PPI
    • HIV
    • Narcotics
    • NSAID
    • Steroids
    • Tetracycline
    • ASA
  115. Food Poisoning Labs
    • CBC
    • Lytes
    • Creatinine
    • BUN
    • calcium
    • abd X-ray
  116. Inferior MI N/V labs
    • CBC
    • Lytes
    • BUN
    • Creatinine
    • Calcium
    • Troponin
    • EKG
  117. Viral Gastroenteritis Labs
    • CBC
    • Lytes
    • BUN
    • Creatinine
    • Calcium
    • AST
    • ALT
    • Abd X-ray
  118. N/V Labs
    • CBC
    • Lytes
    • BUN
    • Creatinine
    • ALT
    • AST
    • Calcium
    • urinalysis
    • Troponin
    • EKG
    • Abd X-ray
  119. Diarrhea Labs
    • Fecal leukocytes/Ova & parasites
    • Stool culture
    • CBBC
    • Lytes
    • BUN
    • Creatinine
    • Calcium
    • C diff toxin
  120. RBC Size abnormalities
    • Microcytes - IDA, Hereditary spherocytosis, Thalassemia
    • Macrocytes - Vit B12/folic acid deficiency, reticulocytosis, liver disorder, postsplenectomy anemia
  121. RBC Shape Abnormalities
    • Spherocytes
    • Elliptocytes
    • Leptocytes
    • Spicule cell
  122. RBC color abnormalities
    • Hypochromasia - IDA, Thalassemia, Cardiac Disease
    • Hyperchromasia - concentrated hemoglobin
  123. % of blood plasma
    55
  124. % of blood RBC/WBC
    45
  125. Reticulocyte
    premature RBC
  126. S&S of low Hgb
    • fatigability
    • HA
    • tachycardia
    • palpitations
  127. Deficiency in globin
    Small uniformly shaped cells
  128. Sideroblastic anemia
    storage disorder of iron in macrophages of bone marrow
  129. IDA
    • hgb 4-12
    • MCV low
    • RDW high
    • Fe low
    • ferritin low
    • TIBC high
  130. Anemia of Chronic dz
    • Hgb 8-12
    • MCV Normal/low
    • RDW Normal
    • Fe low
    • Ferritin Normal/high
    • TIBC Low
  131. Thalaseemia
    • Hgb 9-14
    • MCV very low
    • RD normal
    • Fe normal
    • Ferritin Normal
    • TIBC normal

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