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all carbons bonded to nitrogen are derived from alkyl groups.
one or more of the groups bonded to nitrogen are aryl groups
an amine in which the nitrogen atom is part of a ring
a heterocyclic amine in which the ring is saturated
heterocyclic aliphatic amine
the amine nitrogen is part of an aromatic ring
heterocyclic aromatic amine (benzene ring)
a benzene with NH2 attached is what molecule
when you have two molecules attached to an amine instead of a number you can use
when four atoms or groups of atoms are bonded to a nitrogen atom, nitrogen bears a positive charge. how do you name this atom
replace the parent name for example: amine, aniline, or pyridine with ammonium
what is the atom called that is a benzene ring with N in the ring
amines smells are....
sharp, penetrating odors, like rotting fish
are amines polar or no polar and what polarity do they possess
- they are polar with
- london dispersion
- dipole dipole
- and hydrogen bonding (3o amines have no hydrogen bonding)
in the chart for polarity where would amines fit in
right after alkyls, and before alcohols
all classes of amines form hydrogen bonding with what atom
- - most low-molecular-weight amines are completely soluble in water
- - higher-molecular-weight amines are only moderately soluble in water or are insoluble
- - more Cs and Hs less soluble
are amines strong or weak bases
the acid-base reaction between amine and water involves
- transfer of a proton from water to the amine
- acid gives up H+, H+ attaches with amine and the amine become +. Amine loses lone pair, water gains the lone pair and become -
what is the base dissociation constant
if Kb is less than 1 there is more ...
if Kb is more than 1
there is more products
out of aliphatic, ammonia, and aromatic list the base strengths
- 1. strongest base aliphatic
- 2. ammonia medium strenth base
- 3. weakest base aromatic
in protonated vs unprotonated
if its more than 1 it is
in protonated vs unprotonated
if its less than 1 unprotonated
protonated in blood
unprotonated in blood
amines whether soluble or insoluble in water, react quanitatively with strong acids to form
- water-soluble salts
- +,- charges
in the basicity of amines the amine is the baes, and the other is the acid. what happens in the reaction
- the H from the acid goes with the amine. he amine becomes a + charge,
- the acid that lost the H becomes a - charge
where is the aldehyde in a formula
- always at the end
- - al ending
- - no #
- - CHO or CH=O
- - unsaturated
- - number the C chain by going THROUGH the C in the aldehyde
Ketones are always where in a formula
- - have to surrounded by Cs, and in middle of Cs
- - RC=O
- - RCO
- - one ending
- - use #
what does an Acetone look like
when there is an aldehyde or ketone in formula as well as alcohol what parent name do you use and what branch name?
use the ketone or aldehdye as parent name and hydroxy as branch name
when there is an amine in a chain with aldehyde and/or ketone what branch name does it get
for common names of ketones the akyl and aryl groups are name in what order
by increasing molecular weight
the C=O (carbonyl) is polar, but in the CH chain what is the difference
the C=O is polar but the chain is non polar
where do ketones and aldehydes fit in the chart of polarity with all the other molecules we learned
they are in a "group" together after either, and alkyl groups, before amine, alcohol and COOH groups
small ketones and aldehydes are soluble or insoluble?
infinitely soluble. the more CHs, the less soluble
ketones smell like...
pleasant smells like perfumes, and flavoring agents
aldehydes smell like...
different things, some smell like perfumes and others are not pleasant
gain O or lose H
what substances can make aldehydes oxidize?
- O2 liquid
- and tollens reagent Ag
what substances can make ketones oxidize
what happens to the aldehyde when oxidized with K2Cr2O7 or when it is liquid and reacts with O2?
it gains another O, so becomes C=OOH
when aldehyde reacts with Tollens Reagent what happens
- it goes to a carboylic anion COO-
- Then if you add an acid it will get the H back COOH
- this is the easier way to oxidize because you will see silver, and can tell whether it is an alcohol, aldehyde or ketone bc only reacts with aldehydes
what happens in reduction with ketones and aldehydes
- - aldehydes become a 1o alcohol
- - ketone becomes a 2o alcohol
what is used in reduction for aldehydes and ketones ?
- -H2/ Transition metal catalyst
- - NaBH4
- uses H-. the H adds to the C, the double bond between C and O breaks and the O gets a - charge. Then H3O+ reacts and the O loses it - charge and gains an H
- - NaDH + acid
what happens when NaBH4 reacts with a carbon-carbon double bond
which would i use when i have a carbon-carbon double bond. NaBH4 or H2/TM catalyst?
- it does not affect it.
- thats why you would use NaBH4 over the H2/TM catalyst, bc the TM catalyst will open up all the double bonds in the molecule when the other atom does no, it just affects the double bond between C and O
is Hydrogen bonding possible between aldehydes and ketones ?
no just london disperson and dipole dipole
the reduction reagent NaBH4 contains a
- Hydride ion : H:-
- the hydride ion, hydrogen has two valence electrons and bears a negative charge.