urinary system

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urinary system
2011-11-21 21:41:40

anatomy 2 urinary system
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  1. kidneys
    major exretory organs of body
  2. urinary bladder
    temporary storage reservoir for urine
  3. ureters
    transport urine from the kidneys to the bladder
  4. urethra
    transports urine out of the body
  5. nitrogenous waste products exreted from the kidney
    • urea
    • creatine
    • (both come from protien metabolism)
  6. retroperitineal organs
    • kidneys
    • ureters
  7. renal hilum consists of
    • renal artery (supplies blood to kid)
    • renal vein (drains blood from kid)
  8. kidneys location
  9. kid functions
    • removal of toxins, metabolic wastes, excess ions from blood
    • regulation of blood volume, chemical composition(electrolytes), and ph
    • gluconeogenesis (new glucose production) during prolonged fasting
    • endocrine functions : renin - regluation of bp and kidney function
    • erythropoietin- regulation of RBC produciton
    • activation of vitamin D
  10. kidney anatomy
    • layers of supportive tissue
    • fibrous capsule (kidney is encased in a fibrous capsule)
    • -protects kidney
    • -has pain receptors (nociceptors)
  11. internal kidney anatomy
    • renal cortex
    • renal medulla
    • lobe (medullary pyramid)
    • papilla (tip of renal pyramid)
    • minor calyx's drain into major calyx's
    • renal pelvis
    • ureter
  12. renal artery
    • is a branch off of the abdominal aorta
    • delivers oxygenated blood to the kidneys through the renal hilum
  13. arterial blood supply
    • RSI ACA
    • Renal artery
    • segmental artery
    • interlobal artery
    • arcuate artery
    • cortical radiate artery
    • afferent arteriole
  14. nephron
    • structural and functional units that from urine
    • about 1 million per kidney
  15. two main parts of nephron
    • renal corpuscle
    • bowmans capsule
  16. renal corpuscle
    • -glomerulus
    • -bowmans capsule
    • * visceral layer of bowmans capsule is represented by the cell podocyte
    • *parietal layer of bowmans capsule
  17. bowmans space
    space between parietal and visceral layer of bowman's capsule
  18. glomerular filtration
    plasma leaks out of the glomerulus into bowman's space
  19. during glomerular filtration plasma becomes
  20. filtration system
    • in order for plasma to leave glomerulus and become filtrate it must first go through fenestrations which are in the endothelium of the glomerulus
    • -basement membrane
    • -podoyctes
    • -podocytes make filtration slits
  21. filtration membrane =
    fenestrations plus basement membrane plus filtration slits
  22. what enters bowmans space
    • enters tubular system
    • after, whatever is left becomes urine
  23. nephrons are located
    in teh cortex and medulla
  24. renal corpuscle
    glomerulus plus it's glomerular capsule
  25. albumin
    is too big to pass through the glomerulus into bowmans capsule
  26. renal tubules
    • -proximal convoluted tubule (PCT)
    • -Loof of Henle
    • -distal convoluted tubule (DCT)
    • -collecting duct
  27. as the filtrate moves through the renal tubules two processes occur
    • tubular reabsorption
    • tubular secretion
  28. afferent arteriole brings blood to glomerulus
    afferent arteriole gives rise to glomerulus
  29. when blood leaves glomerulus it goes into
    • efferent arterioles
    • efferent arterioles give rise to peritubular capillaries
    • peritubular capillaries give rise to peritubular veins
  30. cortical nephron
    most nephrons are cortical
  31. juxtamedullary nephron
    • 15% of nephrons
    • contain loop of henle
    • contain second set of capillaries called the vasa recta in addition to peritubular capillaires
    • plays critical role in concentrating and diluting the urine
  32. tubular reabsorption
    moves from the filtrate to peritubular capillaries. Most reabsorption occurs in PCT (proximal convoluted tubule)
  33. when filtrate moves from the loop of henle to DCT these hormones come into play
    • -ADH (anti diuretic hormone)
    • a. mostly in collecting duct
    • b. causes increased water reabsorption
    • -aldosterone
    • a. principal cells
  34. tubular secretion
    goes from blood into the filtrate
  35. once the filtrate passes teh collecting duct it becomes urine
  36. juxtaglomerular apparatus (JGA)
    • cells where the loop of henle is becoming the DCT
    • -manula densa cells
    • they are chemoreceptors, sense content of filtrate
    • constrict or dilate depending on sodium chloride content
  37. granular cells (juxtaglomerular cells)
    • found in teh afferent arteriole
    • sense blood pressure
    • contain granules of renin
    • If they sense BP is too low, they will secrete renin which causes aldosterone to be released from the adrenal cortex
  38. ureters
    smooth muscle which propels urine from the kidney to the bladder
  39. ureters open in an area called
    the trigone
  40. detrusor muscle
    autononomic nervous system cause detrusor muscle to contract which causes urination (micturition)
  41. sphincters
    • internal sphincter
    • -smooth muscle
    • external sphincter
    • -in pelvic floor
  42. micturition
    • urination or voiding
    • 3 simultaneous events
    • -contration of detrusor muscles by ANS
    • -opening of internal urethral sphincter by ANS
    • -opening of external urethral sphincter by somatic nervous system