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What is the energy balance equation?
Energy in = energy out + Energy Stored
Where does energy in come from?
From your diet
Where does energy go?
From cells to keeping you alive
What is energy stored?
the energy that is not used and is stored as fat
How much energy does 1 gram of a carbohydrate?
How much energy does 1 gram of a protein provide?
How much energy does1 gram of fat provide?
How much energy does 1 gram of alcohol provide?
What is the balanced amount of macronutrients in an energy ratio?
- Carbohydrates 55%
- Proteins 15%
- Fat 30%
Energy goes out to three main things:
- Resting Metabolic Rate
- Thermic effect of feeding
- Physical activity
What are the variables that affect the resting metabolic rate?
- Fat-Free mass
- Physical Activity
What is the thermic effect of feeding?
- Have to increase body temperature to eat
- Uses around 10 % of energy ingested
Why is the thermic effect of feeding higher for proteins and carbohydrates than for fats?
- MOre energy out of fats and easier to store
- Carbohydrate and proteins have alot of breaking downs?
WHat is maintain when energy in= energy out?
Body mass homeostasis
What are the four main functions of carbohydrates in your body?
- Energy Homeostasis
- Form the carbon skeletons of amino acids
- Glycoproteins- mucins, antibodies, clotting factors
- Proteoglycans - junk between your cells
WHat is the glycemic index?
- How quickly dose a food enter the blood as glucose
- A GI of 100 would mean that the food enters the blood as quickly as glucose
Why are carbohydrates critical for homeostasis?
They are an excellent source of energy and you dont have large stores, so eating them is critical
What are where are carbohydrates stored?
Stored as glycogen in the liver and muscle and as glucose in the blood
an excellant source of energy but you store very little
What are carbohydrates and how are they classified as?
- They are polmers of sugars
- They are classified based on size, mono- di- oligo- and poly-sacharrides
What have the highest energy content of the macronutrients and what are they excellent for?
Lipids and are excellent for long-term energy storage
What are the different classification of fats?
What are nonessential fatty acids?
- Can be made by the body
- Lipogenesis in the liver
- Stimulated by insulin
WHat are essential fatty acids?
- Can NOTbe made by the body
- Omega-6 (linoleic acid) vegetable oil
- Omega-3 (alpha linoleic acid) salmon, flax
How are fats transported through the body?
- Proteins are combined with lipids to make lipoproteins
- To make them miscible with water
Where are chylomicrons made and what do they do?
- Made in the intestine
- Transport lipids from food into blood and liver
- Critical for transporting vitamin A, D, E and K to liver
Where are VLDLs made and what do they do?
- Made in liver
- Transport fatty acids from the liver to heart, muscle and adipose tissue
Where are LDLs made and what do they do?
- Made in the liver, what is left of VLDLs
- Primarily cholesterol
- Transport cholesterol to liver and other tissues
Where are HDLs made and what do they do?
- Made in the liver and intestine
- Transport cholesterol from tissues back to liver
What are lipids essential for?
- Energy storage
- Membrane fluidity
- Precursers for critical molecules in body
How does obesity effect LDL and HDL?
- increases LDL
- Decreases HDL
How does Saturated fat effect HDL and LDL?
- INcreases LDL alot
- Increases HDL
How does cis monounsaturated effect HDL and LDL?
- Decreases LDL
- INcreases HDL
How does trans monounsaturated effect HDL and LDL?
- Increases LDL alot
- Decreases HDL
What is a good source of omega-6 fa?
What is a good source of omega-3 fa?
WHat is BMI?
- Body mass index
- = weight (kg)/ height cm2
After water, what is the major contituent of your body?
What does protein turnover account for?
Twenty percent of your resting ATP requirement
Where is most of your protein mass found?
- Muscle (myosin, actin)
- Blood (hemoglobin)
- Skin (collagen)
What is an indispensible amino acid?
Essential, cannot be made by the body
What is a conditionally indispensible amino acid?
There is difficulties making the amino acid so they become essential
What is a dispensible amino acid?
Non-essential can be synthesized in the body
What foods are good sources of methione and what are deficient?
- + Animal proteins
- - Tubers
What food are good sources of lysine, threonine, tryptophan and what are deficient?
- +Animal proteins
How does methionine effect lifespan in mice and flies?
- Mice on unrestricted diets, methionine reduces lifespan
- FLies on restriced diets , methionine increases lifespan without reducing reproduction
What causes Marasmus?
- Severe energy deficiency
- Not enough proteins
- Absolute deficiency
- Characterized by emaciatiation, wasted
What is characterized by Kwashiorkor and what causes it?
- Characterized by emaciation and edema
- Causes are unknown, but thought to be from low protein in diet, micronutrients and aflatoxin
What is hormesis and what are some examples of it?
- Hormesis is the J-shaped curves show benefits of some of the food but as more and more are eating it is not benefical
- A problem is that there is a strong preference of these nutrients but leads to an overabundance in diet and lead to deleterious effect
How does a deficiency in retinoic acid lead to xeropthalmia, respiratory infections, and developmental problems?
Caused by a low amount of retinoic acid causing cells to secrete keratin rather than mucus
What role does retinal play in our eyes?
- Retinal is critical for the detection of light by the rod cells in your eyes.
- Deficiencies can lead to night blindness
What can vitamin D deficiencies lead to?
How is vitamin E a potent antioxidant?
Vitamin K is necessary for the formation of what?
Gama-Carboxyglutamic acid (Gla)
What does gama-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla) do?
Gla is critical for clotting factor, allowing them to bind to phospholipids in the presence of of Ca2+
Why is vitamin K not found in newborns?
- It is fat soluble so it does cross the placenta well
- It is synthesized by bacteria in the large intestines
- It is not stored can see deficiencies within 48 hours
What is the main function of the B vitamins?
Cofactors for enzymes
Are B vitamins stored?
What are good sources of B vitamins?
What is thiamine important for?
- IMportant for carb metabolism
What does deficiencies of Thiamine lead to?
- Beriberi (wet or dry)
- Wernicke- Korsakoff syndrome
What is vitamin B2 a component of?
What do deficiencies of riboflavin lead to?
Fast growing tissues (skin and mouth)
What is vitamin B3 a component of?
What is vitamin B3 synthesized from?
Tryptophan with the presence of B6
What does a deficiency in B3 result in?
What is the necessary cofactor for heme, neurotransmitters, niacin?
What does deficiency in B6 result in?
- Mental Abonormalities
What is critical for nucleotide synthesis?
Where is B12 stored?
What does B12 deficiencies lead to?
- Fast Growing tissues
- Spinal Cord degeneration
What is a reducing agent that can reactivate enzymes?