Chapter 18-Expansion of Europe

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  1. Enclosure Movement
    • Ca. 1650-1850
    • Who: the fencing in of fields (raise efficiency) lower peasants
    • Whats:
    • Insisted that lands be enclosed(increase effectiveness)-->common pastureland too
    • Peasants used common land--> graze livestock (now can’t)
    • Opposed movement- allies with noble landowners
    • Land owners opposed b’c large investments for buying/fencing land
    • Whys:
    • Common “ground” for poor rich to unite
    • Oppression of peasants
  2. Putting-Out System
    • Ca. 1650-1850
    • Who: b/w merchants and cottage workers(made goods from home)
    • Whats:
    • Merchants provided materials for workers to make things
    • (assembly line style)
    • M paid worked by piece and make profit at market
    • Grew b/c rural workers need work-even for low wage
    • M decided on standard-->many products (not for rich!)
    • Whys:
    • M making profits(taking advantage)
    • 1700- England relied on this system
  3. Industrious Revolution
    Ca. 1650-1850

    • Who: shift from cottage industry to increasing wages/# of goods produced
    • Whats:
    • Stepped up pace of work and to wage work
    • Worked longer hours and higher discipline-->more goods@lower prices
    • Women earn own wages-->bigger role in household decisions
    • Used $ to buy things no longer produced
    • Whys:
    • Surplus of food/$ to better economy
    • All members get $, not fam business
  4. The Guild Sysstem
    • Originate 1200’s, grow 1672
    • Who: trade-based organizations, monopoly over trade/workers
    • Whats:
    • Received set of privileges: monopoly, train own ppl
    • Restricted membership to upper class (Christian, experience, pay $)
    • ?Ed tech innovation (progress/outmoded/exclusionary)
    • Allowed for workers to be partners/ women to participate..later
    • Whys:
    • Contradicts Enlightenment
    • Allowed eq for women
  5. Adam Smith
    • 1723-1790
    • Who:prof of philospophy, Scottish Englightenment, creator of economic liberalism
    • Whats:
    • published "Inquiry into Nature and causes of wealth of nations"(1776)-criticize guilds (outmoded)
    • believed in free comp.-protect consumers from higer prices/equal chances
    • limited gov:defense against invasion, civil order, sponsor public works
    • established economic liberalism-comp-->better living conditions
    • Whys:
    • enlightenment?? YES
    • believed in happiness for everyone; eq in opportunity
  6. Navigation Acts
    • 1651, 1660-1663
    • Who: mercantile system, goal to raise military power/private wealth (monopoly->won)
    • Whats:
    • Established by Oliver Cromwell (1651) and Charles II- British ships/who owned
    • Monopolized trade with new world colonies(buy ALL from GB)
    • Targeted Dutch: Anglo-Dutch wars(3)(1652-1674) downfall of Netherlands
    • Rivaled with France for naval power/overseas expansion
    • Whys:
    • Only buying from GB? America’s won’t be happy for long
    • Sounds like absolutism
  7. Colonial Wars
    • 1701-1713;1740-1748(1756-1763){1753-1759}
    • Who: series of wars caused by Britains want for power
    • Whats:
    • Louis xiv forced to give GB: Newfoundland, nova scotia, and Hudson bay (war of Spanish succession)
    • Maria Teresa held her own and kept territory-->GB give up in Europe
    • B/F waged war over Canada (out#ed but great leader-->1758)
    • William Pitt commanded B forces to attack F by sea--> victory
    • Whys:
    • World domination/power hungry
    • France=out of North America
  8. 1763 Treaty of Paris
    • 1763
    • who: treaty about New world colonies between france and Britain(SPain)

    • whats:
    • France lost canada and east of Mississippi River to B
    • F gave Spain Louisiana(compensation for loss of Florida to B)
    • F gave up holdings in India(to B)
    • B monopolized vast trading/colonial empire
    • Whys:
    • f=pushovers
    • b=major power
  9. Atlantic Slave Trade
    (1701-1800; 1780=peak)

    who: slave trade dominated by Britain

    • whatS:
    • rose with rise of agri production (cotton/sugar)
    • sent little boats to shore--> african dealers
    • A dealers relished in new wealth--> buy European products
    • 1780s cabolition campaign grew (women-immorality)

    • whys:
    • viicous circle- a dealers buy more, need for slaves increase, a dealers more money
    • unstoppable force
    • horror
  10. English East India Company

    who: England working towards monopolizing India trade

    • whats:
    • 1716 Mughal emperor conceded to trading privileges for Britain
    • rivaled against France for india (treaty of paris--> Britain)
    • defeated Mughal emperor (1764)= only title, no power
    • Robert Clive ascended as first British gov general of Bengal

    • whys:
    • more control?!
    • kicked everyone out- dutch, french, mughal
    • india= "jewel" of empire
Card Set
Chapter 18-Expansion of Europe
McKay Chapter 18
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