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2011-11-22 11:32:27
Joints Anatomy final

The knee bone isn't connected to anything, its a joint
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  1. Fibrous joints
    • solid unions of bone formed by connective tissue fibers
    • amount of movement allowed depends on shape of articulating surface and length of collagen fibers
  2. Sutures
    • sutural ligament connecting bone of the skull
    • very little if any movement is allowed in the adult
  3. gomphosis
    • peg-and-socket joint,
    • relatively immovable and restricted to the teeth held in alveolar socekts in the mandible and maxillae by a periodontal ligament
  4. syndesmosis
    • type of fibrous joint in which closely opposed bony surfaces are held together by an interosseous ligament or membran
    • all small amounts of movement
  5. examples of syndesmosis
    • distal tib-fib
    • interosseous membranes of forearm and leg
    • interosseous sacroiliac ligament
  6. Cartilaginous joints
    solid unios of bone formed by either hyalin cartilage or fibrocartilage
  7. hyaline cartilage / synchondroses
    • immovable temproary joints in the developing skeleton that serve as growth zones
    • plates of hylaine cartilage (epiphyseal plates) joinging the shafts (diaphyses) and ends (epiphyses) of long bones
    • also costal cartilage
  8. fibrocartilaginous joints or symphyses
    • limited rang of movemnet produced by deformation of connecting pad or disc of fibracartilage
    • unpaired midline joints
  9. examples of fibrocartilaginous joints
    • adjacent vertebral bodies united by intervertebral discs of fibracartilage
    • pubic symphysis
    • sacrococcygeal joint
    • manubriosternal joint
    • xiphisternal joint
  10. diarthrosis / synovial joints
    characterized by a joint cavty that permits free movement
  11. criteria of classification of diarthroses joints
    • number of articulating surfaces and complexity
    • number of axes of movement
    • general shape of synovial joints and movements allowed
    • geometric shape of articular surfaces
  12. simple joints
    2 articulating surfaces
  13. compound joints
    3 or more surfaces
  14. complex joints
    articular disc or meniscus that completely or partially subdivides the joint
  15. uniaxial joints
    1 degree of freedom because they lmiit movement to a single axis
  16. biaxial joints
    2 degrees of freedom because they allow independent movmenets around 2 axes at right angles
  17. multiaxial joints
    • 3 degree of freedom
    • allow independent movements around 3 axes
  18. plane joints
    almost flat surfaces that allow sliding or translation between bones
  19. example of plane joints
    • zygapophysial joints (facet joints)
    • AC joint
    • intercarpl joints
    • CMC & IP joints
    • Proximal TibFib joint
    • small tarsal joints
    • tarsometatarsal and intermetatrsal joints
  20. hinge joints
    • uniaxial joints that are shpaed allow only FLEX and EXT.
    • strong collateral ligaments at the sides
  21. examples of hinge joints
    • humeroulnar
    • ankle joint / talocrural joint
    • interphalangeal joints of fingers and toes
  22. pivot joint
    uniaxial joint ollowing rotation of either a bony pivot in an osseofibrous ring or around a pivot
  23. example of pivot join
    • proximal and distal radioulnar joints
    • median atlanto-axial joint
  24. bicondular joints
    • biaxial joints allowing a principla movements around one axis and limited independent (adjunct) rotation about a 2nd axis
    • have 2 convex condyle articulating with concave surfaces
  25. examples of bicondylar joints
    • knee
    • TMJ
  26. ellipsoid joints
    • biaxial joints alling FLEX-EXT in one plane, ADD-ABD in another, and combinatino of all 4 in circumduction
    • oval or elliptical convex surface articulating with an elliptical concave surface
  27. example of ellipsoid joints
    • radiocarpal joint
    • MCP joing
    • metatarsophalangeal joints
  28. saddle joints
    • biaxial joints allowing FLEX EXT, ABD-ADD, and circumduction by conjunct rotation
    • each earticular surface is convex in 1 diretion and concave at right angles to this
  29. examples of saddle joints
    • CMC joint of thumb
    • SC joint
    • calcaneocuboid joint
  30. Ball-and-socket joint
    multiaxial joints allowing flex-ext, abd-add, circumduction, and med-lateral ROT. convex articulating with concave
  31. example of ball and socket
    • shoulder - GH joint
    • hip
  32. ovoid shaped
    egg-shaped surfaces are either convex (male) in all directions or concave (female)
  33. Sellar or saddle shaped
    convex in one plane and concave at right angles to this
  34. hyaline cartilage
    • cover articular surfaces of bones that develop by endochondral ossificiation
    • provides smooth, wear-resistant surfaced bathed by synovial fluid
  35. fibrocartilage
    • cover surfaces of TMJ, SC, and AC joints
    • mandible and clavicle developed by intramembranous ossification
  36. articular cartilage
    • convex surfaces are thickest centrally and concave surfaces are thickest perifpherally
    • aneural and avascular
    • nourished by diffusion of nutrients from synovial fluid and blood vessels in the adjacent synovial membrane and bone marrow
  37. articular cartilage zones
    • tangential zone
    • transitional zone
    • radial zone
    • calcified cartilage zone attached to bone
  38. Synovial membrane
    lines all non-articular structures within joints: fibrous capsules, bones, tendons, ligaments. lines bursae and tendon sheaths outside
  39. synovial villi
    increase in size and number with age in inner surface
  40. Synovial Intima
    lines the synovial cavity and consists of 1-3 layers of type A and type B synoviocytes that resemble macrophages and fibroblasts respectively
  41. synoviocytes
    remove debris from the synovial fluid and synthesize components of synovial fluid such as hyaluronic acid.
  42. subsynovial layer
    • blends with the fibrous capsule and consists of either loose areolar tissue, fibrous tissue or fat
    • numerous capillaries and lymphatics lie beneath the intima.
  43. synovial fluid
    • found in synocial joints, bursae, tenon sheaths
    • secreted and absorbed by the synocial membrane and a byproduct of blood plasma with added hyaluronic acid
    • lubricant of the joint and helps to absorb compressive forces
    • provides nutrition for articular cartilage, discs, and menisci
  44. articular discs and menisci
    • consist of fibrocartilage with more fibers than cells
    • attached to fibrous capsule of bone and have a vascular and nerve supply to their periphery only
    • act as shock absorbers, increase joint congruency and stability, facilitate movements, distribute weight, protect joint margins and assist in lubrication
  45. articular disc
    completely separates the articular surfaces dividign the joint into 2 cavities
  46. meniscus
    an incomplete disc that partially separates the joint surfaces
  47. fibrous capsule
    • sleeve of dense irregular connective tissue attached around the peripery of the articular surfaces of the bone
    • lined on its inner surface by synovial membrane
  48. Hilton's Law
    joints are innervated by the nerves that innervate the muscles that move or cross that joint
  49. blood of capsule
    vessels and nerves pierces the capsule and it may have openings for bursae that are continuous with the synovial membrane of the joint
  50. capsule ligaments
    • local thickenings of dense regular connective tissue
    • stabilize joints by restricting and guiding movements
  51. accessory ligaments
    separate from the joint capsule and may be exracapsular or intracapsular
  52. Tenons and aponeuroses
    • connec muscle to bone
    • continuous with muscle at myotendinal junction
  53. sharpey's fibers
    tendon attach to cortical bone
  54. tendons
    • consist of dense regular connective tissue
    • collagen fibers are organized into cord-like bundles with loose CT between them
    • associated with joints at their attachments to bone
    • sensory nerve supply but a poor blood supply
    • high tensile strength and are slightly elastic
    • transmit force of muscle contraction o bone
    • some stabilize joint by acting as "dynamic ligaments"