Chapter 15

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Chapter 15
2011-11-21 23:31:35
Neurological Disorders

Neurological Disorders
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  1. tumor
    a mass of cells whose growth is uncontrolled and that serves no useful function
  2. malignant tumor
    a cancerous tumor; lacks a distinct border and may metastisize
  3. benign tumor
    a noncancerous tumor; has a distinct border and cannot metastasize
  4. metastasis
    the process by which cells break off of a tumor, travel through the vascular system, and grow elsewhere in the body
  5. glioma
    a cancerous brain tumor composed of one of several types of glial cells
  6. meningioma
    a benign brain tumor composed of the cells that constitute the meninges
  7. seizure disorder
    the preferred term for epilepsy
  8. convulsion
    a violent sequence of uncontrollable muscular movements caused by a seizure
  9. partial seizure
    a seizure that begins at a fucs of remains localized,not generalizing to the rest of the brain
  10. generalized seizure
    a seizure that involves most of the brain, as contrased with a partial seizure, which remains localized
  11. simple partial seizure
    a partial seizure, starting from a focus and remaining localized, that does not produce loss of consciousness
  12. complex partial seizure
    a partial seizure, starting from a focus and remaining localized, that produces loss of consciousness
  13. grand mal seizure
    a generalized, tonic-clonic seizure, which results in a convulsion
  14. aura
    a sensation that precedes a seizure; its exact nature depends on th location of the seizure focus
  15. tonic phase
    the first phase of a grand mal seizure, in which all of the patient's skeletal muscles are contracted
  16. clonic phase
    the phase of a grand mal seizure in which the patient shows rhythmic jerking movements
  17. absence
    a type of seizure disorder often seen in children; characteriszed by periods of inattention, which is not subsequently remembered; also called petit mal seizure
  18. status epilepticus
    a condition in which a patient undergoes a serioes of seizures without regaining consciousness
  19. hemorrhagic stroke
    a cerebrovascular accident caused by the rupture of a cerebral blood vessel
  20. obstructive stroke
    a cerebrovascular accident caused by occlusion of a blood vessel
  21. ischemia
    the interruption of the blood supply to a region of the body
  22. thrombus
    a blood clot that forms within a blood vessel, which may occlude it
  23. embolus
    a piece of matter (such as a blood clot, fat, or bacterial debris) that dislodges from its site of origin and occludes an artery; in the brain an emvolus can lead to a stroke
  24. free radical
    a molecule with unpaired electrons; acts as a powerful oxidizing agent; toxic to cells
  25. fetal alcohol syndrome
    a birth defect caused by ingestion of alcohol by a pregnant woman; includes characteristic facial anomalies and faulty brain development
  26. neural adhesion protein
    a protein that plays a role in brain development; helps to guide the growth of neurons
  27. phenylketonuria (PKU)
    a hereditary disorder caused by the absence of an enzyme that converts that amino acid phenylalanine to tyrosine; the accumulation of phenylalaine causes brain damage unless a special diet is implemented soon after birth
  28. pyridoxine dependency
    a metaboic disorder in which an infant requires larger-than-normal amounts of pyridoxine (vitamin B6) to avoid neurological symptoms
  29. galactosemia
    an inherited metabolic disorder in which galactose (milk sugar) cannot easily be metabolized
  30. Tay-Sachs disease
    a heritable, fatal, metabolic storage disorder; lack of enzymes in lysosomes causes accumulation of waste produces an swelling of cells of the brain
  31. Down syndrome
    a disorder caused by the presence of an extra twenty-first chromosome, characterized by moderate to sever mental retardation and often by physical abnormalities
  32. transmissible spongiform encephalopathy
    a contagious brain disease whose degenerative process gives the brain a spongelike appearance; caused by accumulation of misfolded prion protein
  33. prion
    a protein that can exist in two forms that differ only in their tree-dimensional shape; accumulation of misfolded prion protein is responsible for transmissible spongiform encephalopathies
  34. sporadic disease
    a disease that occurs rarely and is not obviously caused by heredity or an infectious agent
  35. caspase
    a "killer enzyme" that plays a rolein apoptosis, or programmed cell death
  36. Lewy body
    abnormal circular structures with a dense cor consisting of a-synuclein protein; found in the cytoplasm of nigrostriatal neurons in people with Parkinson's disease
  37. a-synuclein
    a protein normally found in the presynaptic membrane, where it is apparently involved in synaptic plasticity. Abnormal accumulations are apparently the cause of neural degeneration in Parkinson's disease
  38. toxic gain of function
    said of a genetic disorder caused by a dominant mutation that involves a faulty gene that produces a protein with toxic effects
  39. parkin
    a protein that plays a role in ferrying defective or misfolded proteins to the proteasomes; mutated parkin is cause of familial Parkinson's disease
  40. loss of function
    said of a genetic disorder caused by a recessive gene that fails to produce a protein that is necessary for good health
  41. proteasome
    an organelle responsible for destroying defective or degraded proteins within the cell
  42. ubiquitin
    a protein that attaches itself to faulty or misfolded proteins and thus targets them for destruction by proteasomes
  43. internal division of the globus pallidus
    a division of the lobus pallidus that provides inhibitory input to the motor cortex via the thalamus; sometimes sereotaxically lesioned to treat the symptoms of Parkinson's disease
  44. Huntington's disease
    an inherited disorder that causes degeneration of the basal ganglia; characterized by progressively more sever uncontrollable jerking movements, writhing movements, dementia, and finally death
  45. huntingtin (htt)
    a protein that may serve to fcilitate the production and transport of brain-derived neurotrophic factor. abnormal huntingtin is the cause of Huntington's disease
  46. dementia
    a loss of cognitive abilities such as memory, perception, verbal ability, and judgment; common causes a multiple strokes and Alzheimer's disease
  47. Alzheimer's disease
    a degenerative brain disorder of unknown origin; causes progressive memory loss, motor deficits, and eventual death
  48. amyloid plaque
    an extracellular deposit containing a dense core of B-amyloid protein surrounded by degenerating axons and dendrites and activated microglia and reactive astrocytes
  49. B-amyloid
    a protein found in excessive amounts in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease
  50. neurofibrillary tangle
    a dying neuron containing intracellular accumulation of B-amyloid and twisted protein filaments that formerly served as the cell'sinternal skeleton
  51. tau protein
    a protein that normally serves as a component of microtubules, which provide the cell's transport mechanism
  52. B-amyloid precursor protein
    a protein produced an sercreted by cells that serves as the precursor for B-amyloid protein
  53. secretase
    a class of enzymes that cut the B-amyloid precursor protein into smaller fragments, including B-amyloid
  54. presenilin
    a protein produces by a faulty gene that causes B-amyloid precursor protein to be converted to the abnormal short form; may be a cause of Alzheimer's disease
  55. apolipoprotein E (ApoE)
    a glycoprotein that transports cholesterol in teh blood and plays a role in cellular repair; presence of the E4 allele of the apoE gene increases the risk of late-onset Alzheimer's disease
  56. amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)
    a degenerative disorder that attacks the spinal cord and cranial nerve motor neurons
  57. encephalitis
    an inflammation of the brain; caused by bacteria, viruses, or toxic chemicals
  58. herpes simplex virus
    a virus that normally causes coldsores near the lips but that can also cause brain damage
  59. acute anterior poliomyelitis
    a viral disease that destroys motor neurons of the brain and spinal cord
  60. rbies
    a fatal viral disease that causes brain damage; usually transmitted through the bite of an infected animal
  61. meningitis
    an inflammation of the meninges; can be caused by viruses or bacteria