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2011-12-01 02:09:05
Pharm Pharmacology Nursing Polypharmacy Pharmacokinetics

Note Cards for Nursing Pharmacology Exam
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  1. Intake of multiple kinds of medications on a daily basis (many define it as taking 5 or more medications)
  2. Name used mostly to list drugs (e.g. ibuprofen)
    Generic Name
  3. Name contaning chemical composistion (e.g. propionic acid)
    Chemical Name
  4. Drug name that has a registered trade mark; restricted to the owner/manufacturer (e.g. Motrin)
    Trade Name
  5. Drug books my list medications according to the following categories
    • Trade Name (e.g. Tenormin)
    • Generic Name (e.g. etenolol)
    • Pharmacologic (e.g. Beta Blocker)
    • Therapeutic (antianginal, antihypertensive)
  6. The time it takes for a drug to elicit a response
  7. Time it takes for a drug to reach its maximum therapeutic response
  8. Length of time the drug concentration is sufficient enough to elicit a therapeutic response
  9. Medications administered and absorbed into the systemic circulation through oral or gastric mucosa, small intestine or rectum (GI system)
  10. This is the fastest routed followed by enteral and topical routes; injection by any method. Medications admistered outside the GI tract
  11. Application of meds on various surfaces and several different drug delivery systems (creams, ointments)
  12. The study of the biochemical and physiological effects of drug on the body
  13. The action of drugs in the body
  14. The composition of the drug has an important influence on where the drug is ____, where it is ____, where and how effectively it is ____, and lastly how it will be ____.
    • Absorbed
    • Distributed
    • Metabolized
    • Excreted
  15. ____ is the first stop in the movement of the drug through the body.
  16. About 80% of drugs are administered ____ and flow through the ____ tract and ____ intestine
    • Orally
    • GI
    • Small
  17. Absorption is the process by which a drug moves from its site of administration into the ____ or ____ circulation.
    • Venous
    • Lymphatic
  18. Most absorption takes place in the ____ system and more specifically the ____ ____.
    • GI
    • Small Intestine
  19. Most drugs need to be ____ before they can produce an action within the body.
  20. Usually absorption causes fewer problems than ____, ____, and ____.
    • Distribution
    • Metabolism
    • Excretion
  21. The portion of administered drug that has reached circulation and is available to act on the cells.
  22. When a drug is given orally some portion of the drug is not absorbed form the GI tract but it goes to the liver where it is partially metabolized before going to systemic circulation. So some of drug is lost before reaching the blood stream.
    First pass effect
  23. If a drug is less than 100% bioavailable it is due to the ____ ____ ____.
    Fist pass effect
  24. A major determinate of bioavailability is dose ____ and ____.
    • Form
    • Route
  25. If a drug is administered ____ some of the drug will be lost. In this case, the bioavailability will be _____.
    • Orally
    • Reduced
  26. If a 100mg tablet is given, only 70mg is absorbed unchanged, so there is only ____ of the drug that is bioavailable.
  27. With first pass effect, to get a therapeutic level of a drug quickly when it has an extensive first pass effect, what will you see related to dosing?
    Increased oral dose for first dose or maybe the drug will be given IV to initiate the drug into circulation
  28. Transportation of drug to the target site; transferring from the site of absorption to the site of action.
  29. This is a method by which drugs are inactivated and changed to metabolites, a less active form.
  30. Another name for metabolism is ____.
  31. Most ____ occurs in the liver.
    Metabolism / Biotransformation
  32. ____ absorption is quicker than tablets.
  33. ____ and ____ is quicker than liquid.
    • IM
    • Subcutaneous
  34. ____ is quicker than subcutaneous (____ has more abundant blood supply).
    • IM
    • Muscle
  35. ____ no absorption - Medication goes right to the blood supply.
  36. Route of administration that goes ino the GI system.
  37. Route of administration that dissolves under the tongue - From mucous membranes to blood stream.
  38. Route of administration that has local effects (systemic effect is limited unless the this is broken)
  39. Route of administration wehere the absopriton is low through hthe skin.
  40. Route of administration where the area is vascular but unpredictable absorption.
  41. Route of administration where the drug goes directly to the lung(s).
  42. Lining of the ____ is very vascular os it is a good place for absorption.
  43. If a patient has liquid stool, the drug may have ____ contact with the bowel as far as time so less time for ____.
    • Less
    • Absorption
  44. If a movement in bowel is ____ there may be an increased amount of drug absorbed if contact with the bowel lining is _____.
    • Increased
    • Prolonged
  45. If a patient has decreased ____ output there may be a decreased blood flow to the bowel and therefore ____ absporption.
    • Cardiac
    • Decreased
  46. ____ can delay dissolving and absorption. Because of this, your pharmacist may tell you to take a specific drug prior to eating.
  47. Food can combbine with certain drug molecules and inhibit ____.
  48. In some cases it does not matter if food is taken with the drug. Also due to adverse effects on the ____ lining, the pharmacists may sometimes instruct you to take medication with food.
  49. Sometimes when two medications are taken together they cah hinder each others ability to ____.
  50. The ____ level of the drug may determine how easlily particles will be abosrbed in the GI tract.
  51. ____ (acid) in the stomach destroys some drug particles.
  52. ____ acid drugs like Aspirin can pass rapidly across the GI membrane.
  53. ____ base drugs like antacids may be aborbed more slowly.
  54. Where does most absorption take place?
    GI tract, more specifically the small intestine
  55. What affects bioavailability and how does the first pass effect relate to this?
    First pass occrus in the liver. This is when a drug taken orally goes directly into liver through portal vein and a portion gets metabolized before reaching the blood stream
  56. If Nitro (sublingual) is swallowed what will happen to it?
    Nitro is meant to be tken ublingually or under the tongue. If it is swallowed it goes immediately to the liver where it is destroyed. Needs to be administered under the tongue to get into the blood stream and reach its target organ, the heart.
  57. ____ depends widely on adequate circulation.
  58. Drugs are attracted to areas of the body with good ____ supply first. These are more ____ organs such as the heart, liver and kidneys.
    • Blood
    • Vascular
  59. If a patient has alow serum ____ level there will be less protein binding sites and an overall decreased number of receptor sites.
  60. If a molecule binds to albumin, then it is ____.
  61. Ifa molecule does not bind to albumin it is ____-free drug.
  62. Active drug causes a ____ response.
  63. If a patient has a low serum albumin level there will be less protein binding sites and an overall decreased number of receptor sites and this results in a build up of a drug which can lead to ____.
  64. Highly bound (____) plasma protein which is stored has a longer duration of action.
  65. Two highly bound drugs given together can displace one another causing ____ free drug which is active drug. This may cause ____ levels of once or both drugs.
    • Increased
    • Toxic
  66. Fat soluble drugs accumulate in ____ tissue (unavailable drug)
  67. A fat soluble drug's ____-____ increases with increased body fat.
  68. Adipose tissue is a reason why some drugs are dosed based on body ____.
  69. Which drugs cross the blood brain barrier?
    Lipid soluble
  70. How do albumin levels affect the process of distribution especially if your client has a decreased albumin level?
    There will be an enhanced (increased) serum concentration of unbound drug, and unbound drug is active drug