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WHat is culture?
- it is both universal(everyone has it) and dynamic(active).
- Culture is what people in a group have in common, but it changes over time.
- Culture as "the totality of socially transmitted behavior patterns, ars, beliefs, values, customs, lifeways, and all other products of human work and thought characteristics of a population of peole that guides thei rworldview and decision making.
Characteristics of Culture
- it is learned
- shared by its members
- dynamic and adaptive - change over time and dif. rates.
- Complex - cultural assumptions and habits are unconscious
- exists at many levels - material (art, writings) and nonmaterial (cusoms, traditions, laguage,)
- has commonbeliefs and practices
- All-encompassing - culture can influence everthing its memers think and do
- Culture provides identity
is the process of learning to become a member of society or a group. A person becomes socialized by learning social rules and roles, by learning the behaviros, norms, values, and preceptions of others in the same goupr or role. Familis, schools, churches... are agents of socialization and foster the development of a culture and its members' identification with it.
new members of a group or country
immigrants assume the characteristics of that culture through a learning process called acculutration. A person who is acculturated accepts both his own and the new culture, adopting elements of each.
occurs when the new members gradually learn and take on the essential values, beliefs, and behaviors of the dominant culture. Assimilation is complete whenthe newcomer is fully merge into the dominant cultural group.
tendency to thinkthat your own group is superior to others and to view behaviors and beliefs that differ greatly from your own as somehow wrong, strange, or unenlightened.
is the group that has the most authority or power to control values and reward or punish behaviors. It is usually, but not always, the largest group.
gruops within a larger culture or social system that has some characteristis that are different from those of the dominant culture. Ex. dif. status, residence, gender, sexual orientation, ethnic backgroud, education. Street ganges, physicians, nurses,women, older adults, gays, people of Appalachianheritage,
similar go majority groups but smaller.
- groups who are more likely to develop health problems and experience poorer otcomes becuae of limited access to care, high-risk behaviors, and /or multipel and cumulative stressors.Ex. homeless, poor, mentaly ill, physical disabilities, very young and older adults.
- Some ethnic and racial minority groups are aslo vulnerable.
- is similar to culture in the it refers to groups whose members share a common social and cultural heritage that is passed down from generation togeneration. However it is also similar to subculture, in that the member of an ethnic group have some characteristics in common that are not shared or understood by outsiders.
- May include race but is not the same as race.
- strictly related to biology
- Race refers to the gruoping of people based on biological similariteis, such as skin color, blood type, or bone structure.
- Ask - what race do you identify with and what name do you prefer to use for it.
- Race is self-idenfitication by people according to the race or races with which they most closely identify.
- when you know a client's country of heritage, say for example, Syrian American instead of white or caucasian
refers to an ordered system of beliefs regarding the cause, nature and purpose of the universe, expecially the beliefs related to the worship of a God or gods.
Explain the difference between an archetype and a stereotype
- A cultural stereotype is a widely held but oversimplified and unsubstantiated belief that all people of a certain racial or ethnic group are alike in certain respects. Stereotypes are not always negative. Someone may think, for example, that people of a particular heritage are “naturally intelligent” or “naturally athletic.”
- A cultural archetype is similar to a model, which you learned about in Chapter 8. An archetype is an example of a person or thing—something that is recurrent—and it has its basis in facts. Therefore, it becomes a symbol for remembering some of the culture specifics and is in no way negative
6 culture specifics that influence health
- Communication: verbal and nonverbal langauge.
- Space: territoriality, means the behavior and attitude that people exhibit about the area around them hey ave claimed. Person's comfort level is elated to space.
- Time orientation: some are present or future oriented and soem are rooted in the past. Those who are present - oriented may be late to appointments and you must set up a reminder. Future oriented maybe always ontime.
- Social Organization: is the family unit ( nuclearn, single-parent, extended family) and the wider organizatios (comunity, religious, ethnic) with which the individual or family identifies.
- Environmental Control: refers to a person's perception of his ability to plan activities thatcontrol nature or direct environmental factors. Healht and ilness beliefs and practices. Ex. some beleive that they cannot do anything about their health, they are not even going to try to change it. Or some except pain stoically.
- Biological variations: ways in which people are different genetically and physiologically. They create susceptibility to certain diseases and injuries. Bio. vari: body build, skin color, vital signs, genetic variations, and drug metabolism.
Indegenous healthcare system
consists of folk medicine and traditional healing methods, which may alwo include OTC and self-treatment remedies.
Professional helthcare system
run by a set ofprofessional healthcare providers who are educated.
Cultural health procteces
- can be:
- Efficacious (helpfull)
- Neutral ( neither helpful nor causing harm)
- Dynsfunctional (harmful)
- Uncertain(not known)
Complementary and Alternative Medicine
- Complementary medicine: is the use of rigorously tested therapies to complement those of conventional medicine (ex. chiropractice, biofeedback suuplements)
- Alternative medicine: therapies used instead of conventional. Biomedical medicine such as aromatherapy and magnet therapy.
- Cultural awareness: refers to an appreciation of the external signs of devirsity, whereas
- cultural sensitivity: has more to do with personal attitudes and being careful not to say or do something that might be offensive to someone from a different culture.
- Cultural compentence: is attained on a continuum ranging from cultrual destructiveness (most negative) to cultural proficiency (most positive). Being able to use knowledge and sensitivity in practice.
Campinha-Bacote calutral competence ASKED
- Awareness: similar to cultural sensetivity. Take an honest look at your personal biases and prejudices toward cultural groups other than your own.
- Skills: refers to your ability to conduct with sensitivity a cultural assessment and a culturally based physical assessment
- Knowledge: info you have about cultural worldviews and theories. You need to know what the patient's view of the world is in order to understand it and work competently with the pt.
- Ecnouters: means that it takes practice to become culturally competent.
- Desire: suggests that you msut want to be culturally competent.
refers to negative attitudes toward other people based onfaulty and rigid stereotypes about race, gender, sexual orientation and so on.
refers to behavioral manifestations of that prejudice