management 18 chapter 3023
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forces for change
- nature of the workplace
- diversity , agiing, immigrations
- faster, cheaper, and more mobile computers and handheld devices
- -economic shocks
- rise and fall of clobal housing market, financial sector collapse
- global competitors, mergers and conslidations
- -social trends
- increades enviromental awareness, liberalization of attidutes toward gay , lesbian, transgende
- -world politics
- rising health care costs, opening of markets in chinga
planned change- change activities that are intentional and goal oriented
what are the goal of planned change? first it seeks to improve the ability of the organization to adapt to changes in its enviroment. Second it seeks to change employee behavior.
- change agents-persons who act as catalysts and assume the responsibility for managing change activities
- (managers or non managers)
change- making things different.
resistance to change-
can be positive if it leads to open discussion and debate. these respnses are usually preferable to apathy or silence and can indicate that members of the organization are engaged in the process, providing change agents an opportunity to explain the change effort.
or change can be risky
overcoming resistance to change
education and communication-
first it fights the effects of mininfo and poor communication. Second communication can help "sell" the need for change by packaging it properly.
- involvement can reduce resistance, obtain commitment, and increase the quality of change decision.
building support and commitment- firing up employees/
develop positive relationships
-trust in their managers.
implementing changes fairly
-see the reason for the change and perceive its implementation as consistent and fair.
selecting people who accept change
- manipluation and cooptation-
- manipulation- refers to covert influence attempts. twisitng facts to make them more attractive
- cooptation- combines manipulation and participation.
-some people are open to experience.
- the application of direct threats or force on the resisters.
the politics of change
Lewins classic three step model of the change process
Kotters eight step plan
- lewins three step model
- -unfreezing(status quo)
- -movement(desired end state)
- -refreezing(the new change to make it permanent)
- driving forces- forces that direct behavior away from the status quo.
- restraining forces- forces that hinder movement from the exiting equilibrium.
- KOTTERS EIGHT STEP PLAN FOR IMPLEMENTING CHANGE
- 1. establish a sense of urgency by creating a compelling reason why change is needed
- 2. form a coalition with enough power to lead the change
- 3. Create a new vision throught the organziation
- 4. Communicate the vision throughtout the organization
- 5.empower others to act on the vision by removing barriers to change and enouraging risk taking and creative problem solving
- 6. plan for , create, and reward short term wins- that move the organization toward the new vision
- 7. consolidate improvement, reasses changes, and make necessary adjustments in the new program
- 8. reinforce the changes by demostrating the relationship between new behaviors and organizational success.
- OD-organiazational development
- is a collection of planned changed intervention built on humanist-democratic values, that seeks to improve orgnaizational effectiveness and employee well being.
- 1. Respect for people
- 2.Trust and Support
- 3.Power equalization
- 4. Confrontation
- 5. Participation
STESS-dynamic condition in which an indiviual is confronted with an opportunity, ,demand, or resource related to what the individual desires and for which the outcome is perceived to be both uncertain and important.
- challenge stressors- associated with workload pressure to complete tasks , and time urgency.
- hindrance stressors- keep you from reaching goals.
- demands- responsiblities , pressures, obligations, and even uncertainties that individual face in the workplace
- resources- things within an individuals control that can be used to resolve demands.
potential factors of stress
- economics uncertaintiy
- political uncertainty
- technological change
- -organizational factors
- task demands
- role demands
- interpersonal demands
- -personal factors
- individual appraches-
- physical excercise, relaxation training, and expanded social support networks
organizational approaches-wellness programs.
consequences of stress
- physiological symptoms
- psychological symtoms
- behavioral symptoms
sources of resistance to change
- INDIVIDUAL SOURCES
- habit- to cope with lifes complexities, we rely on habits or programmed responses.
- security- threatens their feelings of safety
- economic factors- changes in job tasks/work routines
- fear of the unknown- change substitues ambiguity and uncertainty for the unknown.
- ORGANIZATIONAL SOURCES
- structural inertia- organizations have built in mechanisms. this strucutural intertia acts as a counterbalance to sustain stability
- limited focus of change- number of interdependent subsystems.
- group inertia- group norms may act as constant
- threat to expertise- expertise of specialized groups
- threat to established power relationships-
Sensitivity Training-training groups that seek to change behavior through unstructures group interaction
survey feedback- the use of questionnaries to identify discrepancies among member perceptions; discussion follows and remedies are suggested.
PC process consultation- a meeting which a consultant assists a client in understanding process events with which he or she must deal and identifying processes that need improvement.
team building- high interaction among team memebrs to increase trust and oppeness.
intergroup development- OD efforts to change the attitudes, sterotypes, and perceptions that groups have of each other
AI appreciative Inquiry- an approach that seeks to identify the unique qualities and special strenghts of an organization, which can be built on to improve performance.
a new idean applied to initiating or improving a product, process, or service.
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