States of consciousness AND emotions, stress, and health
Brief and involuntary expressions of emotion (like fear/anger) that can be very revealing.
**hard to suppress** ex: twitches
Trolley Dillema and Footbridge Dillema
Using emotional Intelligence: the ability to percieve, imagine and understand emotions and to use that information in decision-making.
Would you rather flip the switch to save five people or don't do anything and killing the one person?
the interrogator asks about info that would only be known to someone who had been involved in the crime...
Sending Capacity Hypothesis:
as we attempt to control the parts of ourselves that we think would give away our lying (face), we forget to monitor other parts (legs, feets)
General Adaptation syndrome:
Alarm, Resistance and Exhaustion
1. Alarm: a brief period of high arousal of the sympathetic nervous system, which readies the body for vigorous activity.
2. Resistance: If the stressor goes on for longer than a few minutes, the body enters a phase of prolonged but moderate arousal.
3 Exhaustion: Intesnse and long lasting stress cause a depletetion of proteins in the immune system that can lead to illness, fatigue, weakness, and possibly death.
Resources relative to M.T (Magnitude of threat) Model: "The big X"
Insufficient level of arousal= High Personal Resources and Low Mag. threat
Optimal level= equal amount of P.R and M.T
Excessisve level= LOW Personal resource and HIGH M.T
Problem-Focused Coping (Monitoring)
People attend carefully to the stressful even and try to take effective action (Optimal level or arousal)
Emotion-Focused Copint (Blunting)
People try to weaken their emotional reaction to a stressful even through relaxation, exercise and/or distraction
(Excessive Level or arousal)
Type A vs. Type B personalities:
Type A: Describes a highly competitive, impatient, hurried person who typically has an angry and hostile temperament.
Type B: Designates those who are easygoing, less hurried and less hostile.
A person's interpretation of a stimulus evokes the autnomic changes directly. The psychological experience of emotion is the individual's perception of those physiological changes.
i.e: You decide you're happy BECAUSE you're smiling, the physiological experiences come first.
Schachter and Singer Theory:
The intensity of the physiological reaction determines only the intensity of the emotion, not the type of emotion. It is a person's cognitive appraisal of the situation that determines the emotions that we experience.
i.e: First you decide what emotion to offer then show it.
Repair and Restoration Theory of Sleep:
The reason that we sleep is to allow the body time to recover from the exertions of the day.
Note: Same amount of sleep with active vs. non-active people.. so this theory doesn't explain it fully.
Energy Conservation Theory (Evolutionary)
Evolution has equipped all animals with a regular pattern of sleep and wakefulness to help us conserve energy and avoid dangers.
ex: birds sleeping w/ one eye open to avoid dangers.
Rapid Eye Movement (REM)
The sleeper's eyes are moving rapidly around under the closed eyelids
Hypnosis & it's use for pain:
Hypnosis is a condition of increased suggestibility that occurs in the context of a special hypnotist-subject relationship. Increases relaxation.
**Must believe in it, it minimizes external stimulation and makes you visualize a specific event.
drugs that boost energy, heighten alertness, increase activity and produce a pleasant feeling.
ex: caffeine, cocaine and nicotine
drugs that largely decrease physiological arousal.
ex: alcohol and tranquilizers
drugs that produce drowsiness, insensitivity to pain, and overall decreased responsiveness to environmental Stimuli
ex. morphine, heroin AND opiates
drugs that induce sensory distortions and false sensory experiences.
Ex: Peyote, LSD and Ecstasy
Withdrawal VS. Tolerance:
Withdrawal: an unpleasant effect, the opposite of how a drug made the user feel initially.
Tolerance: a decrease in effect develops as the user continues to take the drug.
lack of sleep.
the person may fail to breathe for a minute or longer and wake up gasping for breathe.
sudden attacks of extreme and irresistible sleepiness during the day.
is not a symptom of any mental or emotional disorder.
is usually found in children.
an individual opens their eyes during sleep and will see people or objects that aren’t physically present.
involve waking up during slow-wave sleep in an extreme panic.
Restless Leg Syndrome:
prolonged “crawly” sensations in the legs, accompanied by strong repetitive leg movements that can wake the sleeper.
excessive sleep that is unrefreshing
Freud's Theory: (TWO components)
Manifest Content: the surface content of the dream.
Latent Content: the hidden content, represented only in symbols.
According to Freud, the meaning of the latent content can only be determined via the dreamer’s associations to the details of the manifest content.