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Muhammad's father-in-law and the first caliph in Islam
Title given to the successors of Muhammad
They believe that the true successors to the prophet are descendants of Fatima and Ali
They believe Muhammad's successor can be any pious male from the prophet's tribe
This tradition sought communion with God through meditation, fasting, and rituals
After the death of Ali, this powerful Meccan dynasty of Sunni caliphs ruled till 750 AD
Abu-al-Abbas founded this dynasty which lasted until 1258 AD
The second Abbasid caliph chose this site in present-day Iraq, to be his new capital
Muezzins climb to the tops of these slender towers to call the faithful to prayer five times a day
In the Seljuk Turkish language, it means "ruler."
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