ERM Path MISC

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Author:
Smileykay
ID:
118485
Filename:
ERM Path MISC
Updated:
2011-11-22 21:00:51
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ERM Path MISC
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ERM PATH MISC
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  1. At what amount of cholesterol does the LDL receptor shut off?
    2.5 mg/dl
  2. WHat is Ideal cholesterol?
    <50.
  3. WHich drug is the best for removing cholesterol and also helps to reduce STROKE?
    Statin
  4. what are the contraindication for the statin?
    • Myopathy
    • Liver disease
  5. for a dificiency in growth hormone, do we supplement with GH or With IgF-1
    GH
  6. for every 50 mg/dl increase in glucose, there is an 1.1 mM decrease in Pna.

    What about with paraproteinuria and hyperlipidemia.
    overall, the osmolarity is high but the body thinks you are hyponatremic.

    overall the osmolarity will be normal, but as a LAB artifact, it will appear that you are hyponatrimic because the sheer volume of those particles will take space.

    for neither do you actually have to fix anything.
  7. Glucocorticoid deficiency and thyroid hormone deficiency also results in .///
    Increased ADH , hence SiADH.
  8. you see a lump on adrenal cortex?
    • dont worry , about 76% of them are benign.
    • just make sure NOt malignant, Nor hormonally active.

    Hence. CT with contract will check for malignany.

    and then do a hormone test.

    (check the urine cortisol, and then do dexamathasone to see if the adrenal cortex is the culprit for any abnormality).l

    • If it is hormonally active, do surgery.
    • If not active (but greater than 4 cm, ) take it out. probably maligntnat.

    otherwise watch every 3-6 months for the first year, and then watch it for every 2-3 years.

    always make sure to rule out the pheocytochroma, otherwise you will get a hypertensive crisis.
  9. usually when greater, than 1 cm nodule on the thyroid, thats when we do FNA
    otherwsie, the test wont be accurate, and thyroid tumors <1.5, they are usually benign, over 90% benigh,.
  10. ERECTION is all about.......

    what signlas the smooth muscle to "relax, its time!!!"
    SMOOTH MUSCLE!!!!

    if erect: releaxed

    if sitting in class: contracted, like a sponge.

    Nitric oxide synhtase (made by testosterone), and this make cGMP, and gets broken down by cGMP phosphodiesterase. (hence how viagra works). and then they grow and they compress on the emissary veins (that are in the subtunica space).

    The parasympahetic allows you to have an erection

    Hence, the sympathetic allows the ejaculation and also quickly ends the erection by allowing for active contraction.
  11. How do you know if a person has lower level lesions or if maybe he has hypogonadism
    check to see if he has nocturnal erections.
  12. If the viagra and all that doesnt work, then we move onto the
    we go to the injections of Prostaglandin E1.

    • papverine: phosphodiester inhibitor
    • Phemtolamine: blocks alpha receptors.

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