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Psychosomatic (now somatoform). Physical conditions are psychological. Some ilnesses that were traditional thought to be psychosomatic: Headaches, hypertension, asthma, obesity, ulcers, rashes.
Interdisciplinary approach applying behavioral science to the prevention, diagnosis and treament of medical problems.
Weakness in a specific organ that can help cause some somatoform illnesses. For example, bad lungs can cause asthma and psychological reasons can cause asthma to flare up.
Health Behavior: Treatment complience, lifestyle, risk taking.
: Does a patient understand and careful follow a prescribed treatment regimen?
- Lifestyle: Exercise, diet, and other day-to-day activities affect health; we often know what to do but fail to do so for psychological reasons.
- Risk Taking: We frequently abuse our bodies through a variety of risky behaviors, such as smoking, excessive use of alcohol, drug abuse, and other risky behaviors that may result in disease or damage to the body.
- - Has a sense of commitment.
- - Believes he/she is largely in control.
- - Views demands as challenges/opportunities.
Sociological & cultural influences
Sociological influences can be substantial, for example, in the form of:
- Socioeconomic factors, like income and education.
- - Cultural or subcultural norms regarding healthy behavior and help seeking.
- - Provider systems in place (ours is government-based for the poor and employer-based for those with good jobs).
- - Payment systems (ours emphasizes traditional medicine and cost over alternative approaches and effectiveness).
When we are stressed or depressed, it results in an increase of corticosteroids in our body. These hormones lower our immune defense system thereby making us more susceptible to illness.
Coronary Heart Disease (CHD)
The leading cause of death in the United States. It refers to blockageof blood flow to the heart. Psychological factors, such as stress (along with associated emotional states of anxiety and depression), have been shown to be major factors in the development of CHD.
Type A originally thought to be a leading cause for CHD, but no more.
- - competitiveness
- - impatience
- - time urgency
- - working long hours
- - fast behaviorhostility
- Type B:
- - relaxed attitude
- - indifference to time pressure
- - less forceful ambition
Occur from stretching of arterial walls in the blood vessels serving the brain.
Migraines and cluster headaches are strongly biological, but can come on due to stress. Tension headaches (the most common type) often result from the muscle tension of stress. Personality seems important mainly in tension headaches.
Psychological interventions such as relaxation and biofeedback are often effective. Indeed, some research suggests the benefit is as large as with medication. However, they are rarely explored as treatment options.
Acute pain v Chronic pain
Acute: Pain that typically follows an injury and disappears once the injury heals or is effectively treated
Chronic: Enduring pain that does not decrease over time
Group of minor health problems such as weight loss, fever and night sweats that appears after HIV infection, but prior to development of full blown AIDS.
Analgesic rebound headache
Headache, more severe than the original one, that occurs after the medication used to treat headache has worn off.
Process by which a fatty substance or plaque builds up inside arteries to form obstruction
Parasympathetic v. Sympathetic
- Para: Rest and digest
- Symp: Fight or flight
Use of physiological monitoring equipment to make individuals aware of their own bodily functions such as blood pressure or brain waves.
Diastolic/systolic blood pressure
- D: blood pressure level when heart is at rest (between heart beats)
- S: pressure when heart is at work
Substances that act like neurotransmitters that shut down body pain
Progressive muscle relaxation
Set of exercises to teach people to become aware of and actively conteract muscle tension to induce relaxation or drowsiness.
Cardiovascular disease involving blocckage of blood circulation to the extremities with resultan pain and cold sensations in hands and feet
The part of the brain that controls the biological clock is the.....
Some physical symptoms of Anorexia
Dry skin and brittle hair and nails. Stops having period and is always cold.
Treatment technique that involves changing daily habits that may interfere with sleep.
Subfield of behavioral medicine that studies psychological factors important in healt promotion and maintainence.