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2011-11-22 14:27:41

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  1. Nervous system divided into:
    Central nervous system =Brain and spinal cord

    Peripheral nervous system = Cranial nerves and spinal nerves

    Autonomic nervous system = Sympathetic and parasympathetic systems
  2. basic cell of the nervous system
  3. chemical substances that excite, inhibit, or modify response of another neuron
  4. how do both hemispheres of the brain communicate
    nerve fibers in the corpus callosum
  5. left hemisphere specializes in?
    analysis, problem solving, calculation, communication
  6. right side of the brain specializes in
    art, music, nonverbal communication, spiritual aspects
  7. amount of CSF produced daily
    500 ml
  8. main function of ANS
    maintain homeostasis
  9. system activated by stress - flight or fight response
    sympathetic nervous system
  10. system that restores, conserves, adn maintains vital body function
    parasympathetic nervous system
  11. health history assessment includes
    • Headaches
    • Clumsiness
    • Loss or change in function of extremity
    • Seizure activity
    • Numbness or tingling
    • Change in vision
    • Pain
    • Extreme fatigue
    • Personality changes
    • Mood swings
  12. glasgow scale of 3
    deep coma
  13. glasgow scale of 7
    state of coma
  14. ability to recongnize object by feel
  15. sense of joint position in space
  16. ability to recognize shapes drawn on the skin
  17. testing reflex: plantar flexion is normal or abnormal
  18. fanning of the toes or dorsiflexion is normal or abnormal
    abnormal - positive babinski indicates corticospinal disease
  19. Trauma to scalp, skull, or brain
    head injury
  20. abscence of achilles reflex in the elderly is _____ considered _____-

  21. mini stroke
  22. TIA symptoms
    • blurred vision
    • balance
    • loss of balance/coordiantion
    • difficulty speaking/understanding
  23. mnemonic indicators of stroke

    • smile
    • talk
    • raise both arms
    • tongue
    • time
  24. Brain Injury by Acceleration
    moving object
  25. Brain Injury by decceleration
    head strikes solid object
  26. major risk factor for stroke
  27. Complications of head injury
    Hemorrhage, cerebral edema, and ICP
  28. mgmt an focus of head injury
    focuses on early recognition,treatment of increasing intracranial pressure, and maintenance of normal bodyfunctions
  29. Space-occupying intracranial lesions

    –Either benign or malignant
    brain tumor
  30. AKA brain attack or stroke

    Loss of function, temporary or permanent
  31. Frequently precedes stroke

    Temporary impairment of blood flow to

    May last from few seconds to 24 hours
  32. med surg mgmt of stroke
    • Airway maintenance and supportive therapy
    • during first 24 to 48 hours
  33. embolic stroke activity
    HOB flat
  34. hemorrhagic stroke activity
    HOB elevated
  35. Chronic, progressive, degenerative disease

    Affects area of brain controlling movement

    Symptoms: Muscular rigidity, bradykinesia, resting tremors, muscular weakness, and loss of postural reflexes
  36. cause of parkinsons
    unknown, but maybe be associated with toxicity, hypoxia, encephalitis
  37. parkinsonian syndrome is caused by
    • cocaine
    • haldol
    • clorpromazine
  38. nurse suspcts ___ when she notices monoone voice, pill rolling of hand, and mask like face, shuffling gait
  39. parkinsons major cause of death
    imobility or injury
  40. med mgmt for PD
    • control symptoms
    • provide support
    • phyio & psychotherapy
  41. is there a cure for PD
  42. PD activity advisemnt for caregivers
    encourage cleint to be independent as possible
  43. diet for PD
    high fiber pureed diet with 2000 ml of fluids bc of constipation and dysphagia
  44. Chronic, progressive, degenerative disease of central nervous system

    Characterized by loss of myelin by hardened patches: Decreases nerve conduction
    Multiple sclerosis
  45. MS is more prevelent in _____ people, and in ____ gender
    northern european ancestry

  46. why is MS sometimes hard to Dx
    bc of periods of exacerbation and remission
  47. MS Dx is based on?
    Hx and elimination of oher possible Dx
  48. MS exacerbation periods last?
    hours - months
  49. complication of MS
    • pneumonia
    • depression
    • UTI
    • pressure ulcer
  50. is there a cure for MS
  51. Tx goals for MS
    • limit exacerbation
    • prevent complication
    • maintain functional level
  52. it is also imporant to educated MS clients about
    temperatre sensation
  53. MS cleints are a risk for?
  54. emphasize avoiding ____ wih MS
    stress, infection, fatigue
  55. encourage ___ with MS
  56. medications for MS
    • interferon
    • immunosupresseive
  57. Progressive, fatal disease

    Characterized by degeneration of motor
    neurons in cortex, medulla, and spinal cord

    No cure
    lou gheregs (amyotrophyic lateral scerosis
  58. •Usual life expectancy from diagnosis for Lou Gheregs
    3 yrs
  59. lou gheregs cause is unknown, bt researchers say it may be related to?
    viral immune response or genetic defect
  60. areas that atrophy first in lou gheregs
    • hands
    • forearms
    • legs
  61. medsurg mgmt for lou gherigs
    treat s/s to promote life as long as possible
  62. only drug currently approved for ALS
  63. precaution with ALS?
  64. Progressive, degenerative neurological disease

    Brain cells destroyed

    Clients with advanced disease cannot be left alone
  65. alzheimers: part of the brain responsible for learning, memory, and emotions that become affected
  66. risk factors for alzheimers
    • age
    • female gender
    • head injury
    • Hx thyroid disease
    • chromosomal disease
  67. test to help MD Dx alzheimers
    neuropsychological test
  68. difinitive Dx of alzehimers is
    autopsy brain biopsy
  69. can progression of alzheimers be stopped by drugs
  70. alzheimers diet
    • high calorie
    • high fiber
  71. nursing mgmt for alzhimers
    maintain safe structered environment and keep consistent daily schedule
  72. AD risk for?
    injury & insomnia
  73. AD:

    ______ care important for health of
  74. Acute inflammatory process involving motor and sensory neurons of peripheral nervous system

    Cause unknown but many preceded by infection (autoimmune or viral)

    Demyelination begins in distal nerves and
    ascends symmetrically

    Remyelination occurs from proximal to distal
    guillain barre symdrome
  75. GB causes:
    paralysis, weakness, difficult swallowing, abscence of reflexes.
  76. 3 stages of GBS
    • acute onset: 1-3 weeks
    • Plateu: several days - 2 weeks
    • recovery: remylination - 2 years
  77. Dx for GBS
    • recent viral infection
    • high protein level in CSF
  78. goal mgmt for GBS
    prevent & treat complications : immobility, infection, resp failure
  79. nursing Dx for GBS
    • impaired mobility
    • ineffective breathing pattern
  80. Pain in head caused by stimulation of pain-sensitive structures in cranium, head, or neck can be primary or secondary

    •Primary:Tension, migraine, and cluster

    •Secondary: Result of pathological condition ie: aneurysm, brain tumor, inflamed cranial
  81. type of HA that is common and causes throbbing steady ache on both sides
    tension HA
  82. migraine HA more prevelant in ___ gender
  83. type of HA that causes aura's (silent HA) vomiting, photophobia, nausea, irritabilty, anorexia and can be triggered by food or chemicals
  84. type of HA that develops around or behind eye and is very severe, eye ma tear, may become congested, awaken in sleep

    occurs more in mean

    Alcohol triggers attacks
    cluster HA
  85. if no cause is found for HA suspect ____
    primary HA
  86. nurse mgmt for HA
    releive pain
  87. •Condition of cranial nerve V

    •Characterized by abrupt paroxysms of pain
    and facial muscle contractions

    - treat pain (nerve blocks) get surgery
    Trigeminal Neuralgia (Tic Douloureux)
  88. •Encephalitis–Inflammation of brain

    •Meningitis–Inflammation of meninges

    •Caused by virus, bacteria, fungi, or parasites

    -give quiet environment minimize light, isolate

    •Can cause cerebral edema, hemorrhage, and
    necrosis of brain tissue
  89. s/s of encephalitis/meningitis
    • fever
    • ha
    • nuchal rigidity
    • lethargy
    • vomiting
  90. is meningitis contagious
  91. meningitis - _____ IS PERFORMED BEFORE ABX
  92. •Chronic, progressive hereditary disease of nervous system

    •Symptoms:Chorea (abnormal, involuntary,
    purposeless movements), difficulty chewing or swallowing, speech impairment, and bowel or bladder incontinence

    •Mental or intellectual impairment
    progresses to dementia

    •Death usually results from heart failure,
    pneumonia, infection, or choking

    •Must collaborate with social worker,
    chaplain, physician, and mental health worker
  93. onset of huntingtons
    35-45 w/ death occuring 10-15 yrs after

    everyone with gene will have it
  94. diet for huntingtons
    high calorie
  95. Neurological movement disorder with Prominent behavioral manifestations

    •Symptoms: Motor tics, involuntary repetitive
    movements of mouth, face, head, or neck, involuntary swearing, echolalia, and
    involuntary repetition of speech of others, copralalia (involuntary swearing)

    common in males.

    onset before 18


    •Treatment: haldol ritalin, psychotherapy, family
    counseling, and emotional support
    Gilles De La Tourette’s Syndrome
  96. controls all body functions from movement to thinking to processing info
    nervous system
  97. frontal lobe specialized in
    • emotions
    • attitude
    • judegment
    • personality
  98. parietal lobe specialized in
    all senses except smell
  99. temperol lobe specializes in
    • memory
    • audiotry
    • interpretation
  100. occipital lobe specializes in