life span

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  1. self
    all of the characterisitcs of a person
  2. identity
    is who a person is , representing a synthesis and integration of self-understanding
  3. personality
    indivisuals enduring personal characteristics/ viewed as the broadest
  4. slef understanding
    cognitive representation of the self, the substance of self- conception/it is based on roles and mebership categories, and proviedes the underpinnings for the deleopment of identity
  5. self recognition
    being attntive and positive toward ones image in the mirror/ appears around 3 months, but the ability to recognize one physical features appears in 2 years
  6. 5 main characteristics in self- understanding
    • confusion of self mind and body
    • concrete descriptions
    • physical description
    • active descriptions
    • unrealistic positive overestimations
  7. confusion of self, mind, and body
    self described in many material demensions, size, shape, color, etc
  8. concrete descriptions
    think of themselves in concrete terms, iknow my abc, i live in a big house
  9. physical descritpions
    see themselves from others through a physical and material attributes (im taller then jane)
  10. active descritpions
    central component of the self in early childhood (i can plya football)
  11. unrealistic positive overestimations
    child saying they know all thier abcs but know none of them
  12. social comparison
    how the compare with others
  13. middle and late childhood
    self understanding becomes more complex, and their social understanding and perspective of others increases
  14. 5 characteristics os self understanding in middle and late childhood
    • psychological characteristis and traits- popular, nice, helpful, mean, smart
    • social descriptions- use social aspects such as references to social grops(girl scouts, catholics)
    • social comparison- what they can do in comparison to others
    • real self and ideal self- seperating actual competencies from those they aspire to have and think are the most important
    • realistic
  15. perspective taking
    ability toassume another perspective and understand his or her thoughts and feelings
  16. five key changes in self understandin in middle and late childhood
    • internal characteristis emphasized
    • more referencing in social descriptions
    • more use of social comparison
    • distnguish between real self and ideal self
    • realistic in self evauations
  17. self understanding in adolescene
    • abstract and idealistic ( describe themselves in abstract and idealstic ways)
    • self consious; preoccupied with self
    • contradictions within the self: has multiple roles
    • fluctuating self; over tiime and situations
    • real and ideal selves; constructed, compared thoughts of posible selves
    • self integration: in sense of identity
  18. possivle selves
    what individuals might become and what they are afraid to become
  19. slef understanding in adulthood
    • self awareness- awareness of strenths and weakness
    • possivle selves- what one could or wanted to be and afraid to be
    • life review- review, evaluate lifes successes and failures
  20. self esteem
    refers to global evaluation of self, self worth and self image
  21. self concept
    domain specifc evaluations of self ( atheletic)
  22. prosocial
    taking another perspective improves children likelihood of understanding and sympathizing with others when the are distressed or in need
  23. antisocial
    children who have a low level of perspective taking skills engage in more anitesocial behavior
  24. narcissism
    too much self esteem (self centered, self concerned)
  25. developmental changes in self esteem
    self esttem decreased in adolescenc, incresased in the twenties, leveled off in the thirties, rose in the fifties and sixties, and the dropped in the seveties and eithties
  26. 5 strategies for increasing self esteem
    • identify causes of low self esteem
    • provied and seek emotional support for social approval
    • develop self confidence adn initiative
    • achieve goals
    • debelopp coping skills
  27. self regulation
    the ablity to control ones behavior without having to rly on others help/ includes self generation and cognitive moitoring of thoughs, feelings, and behaviors in order to reach a goal
  28. selective optimization with comensation theory
    • states that successful aging is linked with three main factors:
    • selction: older adults hav a reduced capcity and a loss of functioning,(reduction in performance)
    • optimization:it is possible to maintain performance through practice and technology
    • compensation:life tasks require a level of capacity beyond the current level of the adults performance potential
  29. jutta heckhausen argues
    the importance of examin control related strategies and the ability of pople to control importan outcomes in their lives
  30. primary control striving
    try to chang external world for needs and desires/ directed at attaining personal goals and overcoming obstacles
  31. secondar control striving
    targets ones inner worlds: motivation, emotion, and mental representation
  32. identity
    • self portrait composed of many pieces:
    • vocational career, plitical, religious
    • relationship, achievements
    • cultural, sexual, physical
  33. erkinson view on identiy
    need to understand adolescent development
  34. identity versus identity confusion
    adolescetns examin who they are, what they are about, and where they are going in life
  35. psychosocial moratorium
    gap between childhood security and adult autonomy, part of exploration for identiy
  36. marcia classifed individuals based on
    existtence or extent of their crisis or commitment(crisis)
  37. crisis
    a period of idetnity delvopment during which the individual is exploring alternatives
  38. commitmetn
    personal ivestmetn in identity
  39. identity diffusion
    status of individuals who have not yet experienced a crisis or made any commitments/ undecided about occupational and ideological chocies
  40. identity foreclosure
    have made a commitment, not experienced a crisis , usuall decision externally made for them
  41. idntity moratorium
    midist of a crisis but whose commitments are either absent or only vaguely defined
  42. identity achievement
    undergone a crisis and have made a commitment
  43. narrative approach
    asking individuals to tell their life stories and evaluate the extent to which their stories are meaningful and integrated
  44. narrative identity
    refers to the stories people construct and tell about themselves to drine who they are for themselves to others
  45. accoriding to marcia at least three aspects of a the young adolescent development are important to identity formation
    • myst be confiecent that they have parental support
    • musth have an established sense of industyr
    • must be able to take a self reflective stansce toward the future
  46. mama cycle
    • pattern for positive identiy
    • moratorum, acheievement,moratoruim, achievement
  47. individuality
    • self assertion- ablility to have and give point of view
    • separateness- use of communication patterns to express own indiduality
  48. connectedness
    • mutuality- sensitivity to and respect for others views
    • permeability- openness to others views
  49. ethnic identity
    an enduring aspect of the self that includes a sense of membership in an ethinc group, along with the attitudes and feeling related to that membership
  50. trait theories
    personality consits of broad dispositions called traits that tend to produce characteristic responses
  51. traits
    ways to describe a person by behaviors
  52. big five factors of personality: the OCEAN
    • openness to experience: imaginative or practical
    • conscientiouness: organizied or disorganized carefule or areless
    • extraversion: scoialbe or retirein
    • agreeablenesss: solfhearted or ruthless
    • neurtisism : calm or anxious
  53. midlive crisis
    in 40s tyring to cope with gap between past and future
  54. novice phase
    the 20s
  55. generativity versus stagnation
    seventh stage in life span theory
  56. generativity
    taking care fo next generation
  57. stagnation
    self absorption, develops when one senses he has done nothing for the next generation
Card Set:
life span
2011-11-28 17:49:37

chapter 11
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