Bony Pelvis - Chapter 1

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  1. What 3 bones make up the hip bone?
    • Ilium
    • Ischium
    • Pubis
  2. Where do the 3 hip bones meet?
    Acetabulum: Deep fossa for the head of the femur
  3. What are the 4 joints of the pelvis?
    • Lumbosacral
    • Sacrococcygeal
    • Sacroiliac
    • Symphysis Pubis
  4. What ligaments unite the L5 vertebrae to the iliac crest/sacrum? What is their function?
    • Iliolumbar ligaments
    • Limit axial rotation of L5 on sacrum and stabilize the lumbosacral joint
  5. What ligaments make up the sacroiliac joint and what is the joint's function?
    • Ligaments: Dorsal sacroiliac, iterosseous sacroiliac, sacrotuberous, sacrospinous ligaments
    • Function: Transmitting the weight of the body to the hip bones
  6. What ligaments form the greater and lesser sciatic foramina?
    • Sacrotuberous
    • Sacrospinous
  7. What outlines the pelvic brim?
    • Promontory and alae of sacrum
    • Arcuate line of ilium
    • Pectineal line
    • Pubic crest
  8. What diameters are measured of the superior pelvic aperture? Where are the measurements made?
    • Anteroposterior/conjugate diameter: Pubis symphysis to sacral promontory
    • Transverse diameter: Greatest width of superior pelvic aperture
    • Oblique diameter: Iliopubic eminence to opposite sacroiliac joint
  9. What is the pelvic outlet formed by?
    • Pubic symphysis
    • Ischiopubic rami
    • Ischial tuberosities
    • Sacrotuberous ligaments
    • Coccyx
  10. Origin, insertion, innervation of the obturator internus? Path?
    • Origin: Obturator membrane, margin of obturator foramen
    • Path: Through lesser sciatic foramen
    • Insertion: Greater trochanter of femur
    • Innervation: Nerve to obturator internus and superior gemellus (L5,S1,2)
  11. Origin, insertion, innervation of the piriformis? Path?
    • Origin: Anterior surface of sacrum
    • Path: Through greater sciatic foramen
    • Insertion: Greater trochanter
    • Innervation: Nerve to the piriformis (S1,2)
  12. What passes through the urogenital hiatus?
    Urethra, vagina and anal canal
  13. What are the 3 parts of the levator ani?
    • Pubococcygeus
    • Puborectalis
    • Iliococcygeus
  14. Origin, insertion of the pubococcygeus (levator ani main part)? Where do the anterior fibers sweep?
    • Origin: Pubis
    • Insertion: Coccyx and anococcygeal ligament
    • Anterior fibers: Behind prostate/vagina as levator prostatae and pubovaginalis
    • Ends in perineal body
  15. Origin, insertion of the iliococcygeus?
    • Origin: Tendinous arch and ischial spine
    • Insertion: Coccyx and anococcygeal ligament
  16. What is the origin, insertion, innervation and function of the cocygeus?
    • Origin: Ischial spine
    • Insertion: Sacrum and coccyx
    • Innervation: N to the levator ani and coccygeus
    • Function: Pull coccyx anteriorly and raise the pelvic floor
  17. What are the contents of the anal triangle?
    • Anus
    • External anal sphincter
    • Anal canal
    • Ischioanal fossae
  18. What are the parts of the external anal sphincter? Where are they located? Innervation?
    • Subcutaneous
    • Superficial: Coccyx/anococcygeal ligaments to perineal body
    • Deep parts
    • Innervation: Inferior rectal branches of pudendal nerve (S2,3,4)
  19. What does the pectinate line indicate?
    Site of seperation of vascular, lymphatic and neural supply of anal canal due to dual embryological origin
  20. What is found superior to the pectinate line? What is its embryological origin?
    • Formed from: Endodermal hindgut
    • Contains: Superior rectal vessels, lymphatics of internal iliac nodes, autonomic innervation (GVA,GVE)
  21. What is found inferior to the pectinate line? What is its emrbyological origin?
    • Formed from: Ectodermal proctodeum
    • Contains: Inferior rectal vessels, lymphatics of sueprficial inguinal nodes, somatic innervation (GSA, GSE)
  22. Describe the sensitivity of the anal canal superior and inferior to the pectinate line?
    • Superior: Stretching only
    • Inferior: Pain, touch, temeprature
  23. What are the boundaries of the ischioanal fossae?
    • Base: Perineal skin
    • Vertical lateral wall: Obturator internus and ischial tuberosity
    • Superomedial wall: Levator ani and anal canal
  24. How do the ischioanal fossae communicate?
    Anococcygeal ligament
  25. What is the location, derivation, contents and function of the pudendal canal?
    • Location: Lateral wall of ischioanal fossae
    • Derivative: Fascia of obturator internus
    • Contents: Internal pudendal vessels and pudendal nerves
    • Function: Supplies external anal sphincter, inferior part of anal canal and perianal skin
  26. What usually fractures on the pelvis?
    Pelvic rim parts like the pubic rami
  27. What muscles are easily damaged during childbirth?
    Levator ani muscles - especially the pubococcygeus
  28. What is the ischioanal fossa usually a site of?
    Site of infection
Card Set
Bony Pelvis - Chapter 1
Pelvis Med School
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