Chapter 16

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Chapter 16
2011-11-22 12:19:19
Schizophrenia Affective Disorders

Sz and Affective DO
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  1. schizophrenia
    a serious mental disorder characterized by disordered thoughts, delusions, hallucinations, and often bizarre behaviors
  2. positive symptoms
    a symptom of schizophrenia evident by its presence: delusions, hallucinations, or thought disorders
  3. thought disorder
    disorganized, irrational thinking
  4. delusion
    a belief that is clearly in contradiction to reality
  5. hallucination
    perception of a nonexistent object or event
  6. negative symptom
    a symptom of schisophrenia characterized by the absence of behaviors that are normally present: social withdrawl, lack of affect, and reduced motivation
  7. cognitive symptom
    a symptom of schizophrenia characterized by deficits in sustained attention, psychomotor speed, learning and memory, abstract thinking, and problem solving
  8. tardive dyskinesia
    a movement disorder that can occur after prolonged treatment with antipsychotic medication, characterized by involuntary movements of the face and neck
  9. supersensitivity
    the increased sensitivity of neurotransmitter receptors; caused by damage to the afferent axons or long-term blockage of neurotransmitter release
  10. epidemiology
    the study of the distribution and causes of diseases in populations
  11. seasonality effect
    the increased incident of schizpohrenia in people born during late winter and early spring
  12. hypofrontality
    decreased activity of the prefrontal cortex; believed to be responsible for the negative symptoms of schizophrenia
  13. partial agonist
    a drug that has a very high affinity for a particular receptor but activates that receptor less than the normal ligand does; serves as an agonist in regions of low concentration of the normal ligand and as an antagonist in reigions of high concentrations
  14. major affective disorder
    a serious mood disorder, includes unipolar depression and bipolar disorder
  15. bipolar disorder
    a serious mood disorder characterized by cyclical periods of mania and depression
  16. unipolar depression
    a serious mood disorder that consists of unremitting depression or periods of depression that do not laternate with periods of mania
  17. tricyclic antidepressant
    a call of drugs used to treat depression; inhibits the reuptake of norepinephrine and serotonin but also affects other neurotransmitters; named for the molecular structure
  18. specific serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI)
    an antidepressant drug that specifically inhibits the reuptake of serotonin without affecting the ruptake of other neurotransmitters
  19. norepinephrine and serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SNRI)
    an antidepressant drug that specifically inhibit the reuptake of norepinephrine and serotonin without affecting the ruptake of other nuerotransmitters
  20. electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)
    a brief electrical shock, applied to the head, that results in an electrical seizure; used therapeutically to alleviate severe depression
  21. lithium
    a chemical element; lithium carbonate is used to treat bipolar disorder
  22. monoamine hypothesis
    a hypothesis that sates that depression is caused by a low level of activity in one or more monoaminergic synapses
  23. tryptophan depletion procedure
    a procedure involving a low-tryptophan diet and a tryptophan-free amino acid "cocktail" that lowers brain tryptophan an dconsequently decreses the synthesis of 5-HT thus lowering levels of serotonin in the brain
  24. silent cerebral infarction (SCI)
    a small cerebrovascular accident (stroke) that causes minor brain damage without producing obvious neurological symptoms
  25. seasonal affective disorder
    a mood disorder characterized by depression, lethargy, sleep disturbances, and craving for carbohydrates during the winter season when days are short
  26. summer depression
    a mood disorder that occurs specifically in the summer; characterized by depression, sleep disturbances, and loss of appetite
  27. phototherapy
    teratment of seasonal affective disorder by daily exposure to bright light