History 311 Chapter 27

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History 311 Chapter 27
2011-11-22 22:01:41
History 311 Chapter 27

History 311 Chapter 27
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  1. Martin Luther King Assaignation
    April 5 1968. Riots brok out. The entire decade wrang out in protests and. Feminists, Chicano activitst, and Native American protestors mobilized for civil rights.
  2. Kennedu and Johnson to follow Trumans footsteps
    Supreme court rullings. Desegregated the military, secured deferal funds for urban public housing, education, and public works projects.
  3. The Other America: Poverty in the United States 1962 by Michael Herrington
    20 % US, 70% white lived in poverty. Harrington documented deteriorating schools, hospitals, and dead end jobs. He made the nations poor visible. He claimed the "culture of poverty" extramarital sex, illegitimate children, and broken families created a driffernt kind of people. JFK awakened.
  4. New Frontier
    legislative program: raising the min wage, reducing overcrowding in schools, health care for elderly. Cutting taxes, increasing govt spending to spark the economy.
  5. Space Race
    Kennedy needed large sums of $ for race against Soviets. Sputnik in 1957. Soviets sent astronauts into space in 1957. Kennedy responded by putting the first man on moon in 1961.
  6. Why did many young people find Kennedy inspiring?
    He was the youngest president. 1000's rushed to Peace Corps established by Kennedy that sent recent college frads to work on humanitarian projects oversease in developing nations. He raised unemployment, but had troup implimenting other parts. 1/3 proposals became law.
  7. Chief Justice Earl Warren 1953-69 Liberal
    champion individual rights,. The Warren Court brough about a legal revolution in the US that altered schools, politics, the riminal justice system, cultural norms. 1954 Brown V Wade paved the way for school desgregation. 50-60's dismantled the Jim Crow laws. Right to privacy. Struck down state laws of possession of obscene publications, prohibited the use of contraception, and prevented interracial marriages. Police interigations and arrests changed. Inform of constitutional rights and to have a state funded attorney present during questioning for incrimination.
  8. Laws
    1954 Brown v. Wade segregation; 1962 Baker v. Carr, feds right to intervene in state voting districts; 1962 Engle v Vitale outlawed official school prayer in schools; 1963 Gideon v. Wainwright, felons right to free counsil; 1965 Griswikd v Connecticut, right of privacy silent until lawyer present; 1966 Miranda v Arizona, right to remain silent and questioning; 1967 Loving v Virginia, interracial marriages state level.
  9. Johnson political agenda
    Took Kennedy liberal agenda and capitalized through congress on Kennedy's death. War on poverity. Created office of economic oppurtunity that formed the Jobns Corps to teach inner city youth vocational skills. Created Volunteers in Service to America (VISTA) a domestic peace coprs that sent priviledged young adults in impoversihed rural and urban areas.
  10. School prayer choices and consequences
    1962 - did it violate the first ammendment - make no law establishment of religion or prohibiting free exercise of. Choices: Prayer was constitutional because students were not required; an offical prayer violated the first ammend; recognized the religion without establishing an offical religion. Decison Engle v Vitale. Consequences: Warren Court recieved more mail opposing the case than any other. Conservative rights resurged in the 1960's,
  11. Mississippi black freedom democratic Party MFDP
    Disenfranchised black traveled to Atlantic City and challenged the all white democratic party for the state. Johnson tried to broker a deal because they went live on tv to tell their story. rejected offer for 2 delegation seats, they took to the floor.
  12. What did Johnson campaign on?
    Poor, liberal reformers, improve the quality of life. Combatting pollution, supporting the arts, and planting trees and flowers along nations highwars, a beautification project headed by Lady Bird Johnson. Goldwater his republican opponent tried to scare people with an ad of a nuclear bomb. Johnson won 61% of vote, more than any other canidate in history.
  13. what made johnson such an effective politian?
    He made possible: PBS, food label listings, trees along highway, unleaded gas at service station. Creating a new cabinet position to oversee housing and economic affairs in struggling cities. GREAT SOCIETY; created a new dept of transportation. He brought legislatures to the white house and subjected them to "the treatment" (a mixture of cajoling, horse-trading, and intimidation) Republicans complained of the three B's: bullied, badgered, and brainwashed.
  14. New laws:
    1964: Economic Oppurtunity Act: VISTA, Winderness Act protect public lands; 1965 Social Security Act, Department of housing and urban development, elementary and secondary education act, immigration act eliminated national quotas, Highway Beautification Act, Motor Vehicle Air Pollution Control Act; 1966 The dept of transportation, Fair Packaging and Labeling Act; 1967 Public Broadcasting Act
  15. Medicare and Medicaid
    Medicare was govt funded health insurance for the elderly reimbursed doctors whatever they charged senior citizens; Medicade: state run for poor.
  16. Immigration act of 1965
    elliminated quotas, waves of Koreans, Chinese, Filipinos and Vitnamese migrated to the US
  17. Rachel Carsons best selling book Solent Spring 1962
    detailing the destructive impact of pesticides. Greenpeace established, Sierra Club, bring light polution by cars and in the water and air.
  18. What was the purpose of the freedom riders?
    The interracial Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) organized freedom rides. Black James Farmer recalled we felt we could count on the racists of the south to creat a crisis so that the feds would be complled to enfor the law. They took a bus ride through the south. They encountered a chase and a firebomb. State troopers saved their lives. A photo of Peck being beaten in the paper alerted Kennedy. Pres urged them not to go on. Brother Robert sent federal marshalls and in Jackson, Miss, they arrested the riders and were arrested for violating segregation laws. 4 mnts in jail. Kennedy weak on civil rights.
  19. What was the SCLC Southern Christian Leadershio Conference, MLK's church based civil rights org.>
    Launched a campaign to desegregate Birmingham the most segregated city in the US. "Birmingham Campaign" with economic boycotts, and sit ins. King timed it to be on good friday as a religious symbol. King wrote from jail on toilet paper: For years now I have heard the word, Wait! It rings in the ear of every Negro with peircing familiarity. This Wait has almost always meant never. How would whites feel about sleeping their cars when traveling because no motel will accept you telling their children they could not go to the segregated park s advertised on the televisions and living constantly on tiptoe stance, never quite knowing what to expect next. Protests occured and dogs and water hoses were unleashed. Police Brutality. Kennedy renewed interest in Civil rights and said to the nation: are we to say to the world and much more importantly to each other, that this is the land of the free, except for Negros?
  20. What happened in response to Kennedy's proposed civil rights act?
    Medgar Evers, head of the NAACP was assaignated in Mississippi
  21. What was the march on Washington?
    It was a massive demonstration at the national monument demanding the passage of a federal civil rights act. Slogan "Jobs and Freedom". Leaders we A. Phillip Randolph (Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters), He had planned his own march but it was cancelled when FDR yeilded. August 28 1963 200000 marchers walked from the Washington Monument to the Lincoln Memorial. People watched it live because of a newly launched satillite. Cairo to Amsterdam people did sympathy marches. 78% of whites believed racial descrimination hindered the Cold War Policy goals. Birmingham bombing in a church killed 4 girls 2 weeks after march.
  22. Freedom Summer
    A multipronged attack in Mississippi in the summer of 64. It was a turning point in the Civil Rights Movement. Council of Federated Organizations (COFO) and SNCC, CORE. 3 men (Schwerner, Chaney and Goodman) came up missing and were killed by a sheriff (Klansman) Cecile Price in Mississippi. They fanned the swamps and found three other black men lynched that were reported missing. The freedom summer had men fanning out getting blacks registered to vote.
  23. Civil Rights Act of 64
    In the midst of the freedom summer, the Civil Rights Act of 64 passed banning segregation in businesses and places open to the public. prohibited discrimination based on race, religion, ethnicity, or sex.
  24. Selma and the Voting Rights Act of 1965
    March 7 1965 called Bloody Sunday, 600 marchers. They intended on marching 50 miles to Montogomery Alabama to demand voting rights. At the end of the Edmund Pettis Bridge, Sheriff Jim Clark ordered troopers to attack as white spectators cheered. Johnson talked with King and pushed through voting rights in congress addressing the nation that all of us must overcome the crippling legacy of bigotry and injusticce stating and we shall overcome which was the anthem to the civil rights movement. 5 months later Johnson signed the act prohibiting literacy tests and poll taxes olus authorized the use of federal registrats to register voters in states failed to repect the 15th amendment. Within a year 9000 blacks register in Dallas County to clock Jim Clarks reelection as Sheriff.
  25. Baby Boomers
    1/2 population under 25 in 1968. Core of white middle class students formed the new left which attacked discrimination, poverty, and the war in vietnam. Al Haber formed Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) in 1960 at the Uni of Mich. he said that "That if any really radical liberal force is going to devolop in America, it is going to come from the college and the young. Tom Hayden, a white activist for the civil rights movement penned the groups maifesto: The Port Huron Statement: We are people of this generation, bred in at least modest comfort, housed now in universities, looking uncomfortably to the world we inherit. 1965 6.5 mill attended colleges vs 1950 2.2 million.
  26. What happened at the university of Berkley in 64?
    Student lived by a strict dress code, curfews, single sex dorms, and forbid all political debate or discussion on campus a rule since the 30's to prevent communist student groups from recruiting. Protest leader Mario Savio returned from the Freedom Summer pointed out the 2 battlefields and said that Mississippi and Berkley may seem quite diffent but to some boservers but not the case. Free Speech movement. It succeeded after 4 months of demonstrations. After 64 the local SDS chapter took over with anti-war demonstrations on university campuses: teachings and draft card burnings. 1968 the New Left leaders expressed open admiration for Marxist-inspired communist revolutionaries like the Ho Chi Minh and Ernesto "Che" Guevara a colligue of Fidel Castro trying to foster a revolution in Bolivia and the Congo. It fostered protests globally.
  27. How did the new left, civil Rights Movement, and the counterculture disagree?
    Hippies: The new Left was seen as youthful social rebels who remounced inner spiritual selves, refused to dedicate their lives to acquiring the smae suburban home. car. and corporate job as their parents. The hippie utopian and sharing of material resources. Drugs, Marijuana, LSD formed a big part of the counter culture. Rock music: Bob Dylan, Beatles, Woodstock 3 day music festival in NY in the summer of 69. The new left stayed with civil rights activism while the hippies stayed with political activism. Blacks were fighting for thier share of the nations wealth. A group of students formed the Young Americans for Freedom (YAF), 1960, they were strong goldwater supports in 1964 and championed limited economic regulations, states rights, respect for law and order, and staunch anticommunism. The New Left held centerstage at the time
  28. The Nation of Islam
    An African American religious sect founded in the 30s, rejected integration and wanted to establish a separate black nation with the US. They viewed whites as blue eyed devils. The leader was Malcolm X who believed in self defense, and black separatism. In prison he converted to Islam. He changed his name from Malcolm Little to Malcolm X to signify his lost name from Africa. He said is if someone puts his hands on you, you send them to the cemetary. Muhammad Ali after meeting Malcolm X changed his name from Cassius Clay. He called the assaignation of Kennedy "a case of the chickens coming home to roost because whites were experiencing what blacks were going through for yrs. X left islam. He had a change of heart after a trip to mecca in 64 and believed in interracial cooperation were possible. Nov 21, 1965 he was assaignated in Harlem where 3 Nation of Islam members shot him dead.
  29. Watts and Chicago
    Watts Los Angelas, a ghetto burned for 6 days over a drunken driving arrest made of a black man. The riots left 34 dead and destroyed 35 mill in property, many of which was owned by blacks. Riots continued 65-68. The SCLC's 66 Chicago campaign when they marched thru all white neighborhoods protesting racial discrimination in renting and selling homes. King said he had never seen mobs as hostile and hate filled as I've seen in chicago. After Kings death in 68 Johnson lobbied for the Fair Housing Act that prevented discrimination in memory of the slain leader.
  30. Black Panthers and Black Power
    The Black Power slogan emerged during James Meredith's 1966 March Against Fear. He bacame the first black student to graduate from the Univ of Miss. He marched 220 miles by himself from Memphis, TN, to Jackson Miss, to encourage people to register to vote. 1966 Black Power militants came to the forefront. The Black Panthers were a militant civil rights group dedicated to armed self-defence, racial pride and inner city renewal. They initiated free breakfast for school children, health clinics, but the press only saw their riffles. Carried guns, stopped when the police questioning a brother or sister to ensure no beatings or abuse occured. Wore commando style uniforms., leather jackets, black berets and deark sunglasses. J. Edgar Hoover FBI Chief viewed the Panthers internally when the courts overturned Newtons conviction in 1970 he came out and the Panthers were in shambles.
  31. Defining Black Power
    clenched black fists became the symbol. Malcolm X: there is no such think as nonviolent in the Negro revolution. Revolution is land and land is the basis of independance, freedom, justice and equality. Kings: He defines militant or being military as: merely means demanding and to be persistent, and in this sense I think the nonviolent movement has demonstrated great militancy. It is possible to be military nonviolent. Violence is not the answer. Black power is a psuchological call to manhood. This is needed in the black community because for so many years they have been ashamed of themselves. Black power is pooling black resources in order to achieve our legitamate goals. Withdrawing economic support from those who will not be just and fair in their dealings is a very potent weapon. Charles Hamilton: has many definitions and connotations in the rhetoric of race relations. Some think it is premeditated acts of violence to destroy the political and economic institutions in US. It rejects the lessions of slavery and segregation that caused black people to look upon themselves with hatred and disdain. The black man must develop a sense of pride and self respect.
  32. Womens Rights Liberation.
    Female activists left the civil rights and moved to womens. Betty Freidman challenged the notion that women found homemaking and child rearing fulfilling. She founded the National Organization for Women (NOW) dedicated to securing equal rights for women in employment, education, and politics. Contraception and legal abortions. Johnson created an affirmative action programs to hire and promote women and minority men. Introduced Ms to replace Miss and Mrs. They protested the Miss America pagent. They were labeled as Bra Burners. Few black women joined feeling racial oppression affected them more severly.
  33. How did the civil rights movement faulter?
    The blacks started moving the more violent side. Kings message weakened. When King spoke out against the Vietnam War, he strained his relationship with Pres Johnson. Kings call for complete reconstruction of capitalism in America weakened him too. 100's of cities rioted over Kings death that caused further race relations to sever.
  34. How did the great society unravel?
    The New Leftt advocated redistributing corporate profits more equitably throughout society while the radical right denounced the Great Society as hodgepodge programs that humiliated the poor and encouraged dependency on welfare which primarily helped the black minorities. Johnsons unwillingness to raise taxes and the costly vietnam war didn't help. Unrest in the democratic left, yippies and antiwar protesters that slung dung waving Vietnam flags caused dismay in the public. Nixon won the presidency and vowed to restore law and order.
  35. when did we walk on the moon
    Neil Armstrong on 7/20/1969. One small step for man and one giant leap for mankind. Buzz Aldrin planted an American flag near man made footprints that were permanent. This gave citizens a renewed sense of the superiority of the American way.
  36. Demise of the Counterculture.
    At the end of the decade, Hippies in Haight and Ashbury did a Death of the Hippie: Son of the Media funeral procession. Blaming the media for over hyped image of free loving hippie portrayed as drug related violence and epidemic of rapers. Reagan said the hippie someone who dresses like Tarzan, has hair like Jane, and smells like Cheetah. Many states passed strict anti-drug laws in response to the drugs. 1972 President Nixon announced a war on drugs.
  37. Mexicans
    short lived. 1960 life expectancy for a mexican american worker was 50. CA banned the short hoe because it crippled the Mexican workers in 1975. Cesar Chavez, head of the united farm workers union, used strikes and marches to secure better working and living conditions. He appealed to the consumers to not buy non union grapes. Texas and Colorado embraced vision called La Raza (The Race) that emphazied racial unity over union organizing. The Brown Berets modeled after the Black Panthers and called themselves Chicanos embracing their heritage while demanding to end Anglo-American discrimination. March of 1968 10000 high school students in E LA staged a blowout by walking out of their classrooms and protesting poor education they recieved in hispanic schools. Amerians had little tolerance for radical political protests. Internal division caused problems which led to their demise.
  38. Native Americans
    Drew from insoirtation from the integrationist vision that chapioned equality and the competing vision that championed equality and the competing militant one that emphasized maintaining racial requality. The BIA began terminating the rights of some Indian tribes to federal protection. Ending their dependence on BIA to run schools, manage their lands, and provide health care which they argued made the indians assimilate into the mainstream more quickly. The indians wanted the same assistance and more self government on the reservations. 11/20/69 Indians calling themselves the Indians of all tribes, occupied Alcatraz island. They issued the Alcatraz Proclamation that offered to purchase the island for $24 in glass bead and red cloth the same amount the dutch had paid for manhanttan islind in 1626. The protest ended in June 1971. In the fall of 1972 a caravan of cars left the West Coast to follow the Trail of Brike Treaties and slogan meant to remind the Americans of the Trail of Tears. These protests promted Nixon to increase funds for social services on Indian reservations and establish the Office of Indian Water Rights. Government harassment eviscerated radical Indian groups, part of a general rack down on revolutionary political movements in the early 1970s.