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How many autosomes do the human somatic cells have?
How many sex chromosomes does the human somatic cells have?
2 sex chromosomes
Males are made of 46 ??
Male 46 XY
Females are made of 46 ??
Female 46 XX
What is Gametogenesis?
- During Gametogenesis process the chromosomal number is reduced by half to produce sperms and ova
- Male sperm 23X 23Y
- Female ova 23X 23X
Male sperm are made of 23? and 23?
23X and 23 Y
Female ova are made of 23? and 23?
23X and 23X
At fertilization the gamete cells fuse and restore to ? chromosomes?
When is the fetus sex determined?
What sex is produced by 46XX?
What sex is produced by 46XY?
What do Ovaries produce?
- eggs or ova (oocytes)
What tube transports the egg to the uterus?
Where does fetal development take place?
In the uterus
What is the female external genitalia called?
What does the cortex (deep the capsule) of the ovary contain?
follicles with eggs cells called oocytes
The medulla of the ovary is the region in the middle containing what?
blood vessels and lymphatics (sends nutrients for the cortical area)
Where do oocytes develop?
within the follicles
What are the six stages of the ovarian follicle?
- 1. Primordial follicle
- 2. Primary follicle
- 3. Secondary follicle
- 4. Graafian follicle
- 5. Ovulation
- 6. Corpus albicans
Describe the Primordial follicle stage?
Single layer of squamous cells around the oocyte
Describe the Primary follicle stage?
- Many layers of cuboidal granulosa cells around the oocyte
- Granulosa cells secrete estrogen
Describe the Secondary follicle stage?
Antral cavity filled with antral fluid
Describe the Graafian follice stage?
Follicle is mature and ready to ovulate the oocyte
Describe the Ovulation stage?
- follicle ruptures releasing the oocyte
- (happens in a split second)
Describe the Corpus albicans (stage)?
A white scar tissue left after the corpus luteum dies.
After ovulation what does the empty follicle become?
What does the Corpus Luteum secrete?
- 1. Progesterone
- 2. Estrogens
- 3. Relaxin
- 4. Inhibin
What does the Progesterone secretion from the Corpus Luteum do?
completes the preperation of the uterine lining
What does the Estrogen secretion from the Corpus Luteum do?
works with progesterone to do their jobs better
What does the Relaxin secretion from the Corpus Luteum do?
Relaxes uterine muscles and pubic symphysis
What does the Inhibin secretion from the Corpus Luteum do?
Decreases secretion of FSH (Follicle Stimulating Hormone) and LH (Leutinizing Hormone) from the anterior pituitary
What are the four functions of estrogens?
- 1. Growth and repair of uterine lining
- 2. Regulation of monthly female cycles
- 3. Female secondary sexual characteristics (no facial hair, boobs, curves, all physical features)
- 4. Maintenance of bone and muscle tissue (when menapause starts, it stops maintenance then everything gets weaker)
During fetal life millions of ??? are produced by ???, but some of them degenerate (atresia) (some die).
Oogonia develop into imature eggs called ??? during fetal development (in ovary).
How many Primary Oocytes are present in ovaries at birth?
2 million - 200,000
How many Primary Oocytes remain by puberty?
How many Primary Oocytes mature during a woman's reproductive life?
How many pirmary oocytes become secondary oocytes every month but only one survives to mature and be ovulated from Graffian follicle?
What is the function of the Fimbriae of the uterine tubes?
Sweep the oocyte into the tube
What moves the oocyte along the tube?
Cilia and peristalsis
Where do sperm reach the oocyte?
In the ampulla
When does fertilization occur?
24-48 hours after ovulation
When does the zygote reach the uterus?
about 7 days after ovulation
What do the uterine tubes consist of?
- Infundibulum - is open funnel-shaped portion near ovary
- Fimbriae - moving finger-like processes
- Ampulla - is central wide region of tube
- Isthmus - Is narrowest portion joining uterus
Describe the uterus.
- 3 inches long by 2 inches wide and 1 inch thick
- subdivided into fundus, body and cervix
- Inferiorly contains the uterine cavity that is connected to cervical and vaginal canals
What are the layer of the uterus?
What are the two layers of the Endometrium of the Uterus?
- Functional layer -
- lined with simple columnar epithelium,
- stroma of connective tissue and endometrial glands
- Shed out during menstruation
- Basiliar layer -
- Replace the functional layer each month
What is the Myometrium of the Uterus made of?
three layers of smooth muscle for contractions during labor and mensturation
What is the Perimetrium of the Uterus?
Visceral peritoneum membrane covering the uterus
What are the mammary glands?
Modified sweat glands that produce milk during lactation
Milk secreting mammary glands olveoli open by what ducts?
Lactiferous duct at the nipple
What suspends the breast from deep fascia of the pectoral muscles?
Suspensory ligaments or Cooper's Ligaments
What are the four helpers of milk production and secretion?
- 1. Estrogens - develop the lactiferous ducts system
- 2. Progesterone - develop the milk-secreting glands
- 3. Prolactin - stimulates milk synthesis in the alveoli
- 4. Oxytocin - stimulate milk ejection from alveoli
Nursing stimulates the hypothalamus to produce what hormone?
What secreted Oxytocin?
Posterior pituitary gland
What does Oxytocin do to the breast?
causes smooth muscles around the alveoli to contract and squeeze milk into lactiferous ducts, lactiferous sinuses and into the nipple
Is milk ejection run by a positive or negative feedback system?
The female reproductive cycle is controlled by monthly hormonal cycle from what three things?
- Anterior Pituitary
What is the ovarian cycle?
Changes in ovary during follicle development and after maturation of the follicle and oocyte
What is the Uterine cycle?
- Changes in uterine endometrium to reveive ovum
- If implantation does not occur, the functional layer of endometrium is shed during mensturation
Hormone regulation is controlled by the Hypothalamus secreting what?
Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH)
Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone stimulates the Anterior Pituitary to secrete what two hormones?
- Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)
- Luteninizing Hormone (LH)
FSH and LH stimulate the ovarian cyclic secretion of what?
Estrogen and Progesterone
What do estrogens and progesterones from the ovaries do?
Drive the uterine cyclic endometrial changes
What happens in the follicular phase of the ovarian cycle?
- *FSH from anterior pituitary stimulates follicular growth
- *Primordial follicle grows into Graafian follicle
- *Granulosa cells of follicle secrete estrogens and inhibin
- *Increasing level of estrogen and inhibin inhibit FSH
- *Increasing level of estrogen stimulate secretion of LH
What happens in the ovulation phase of the ovarian cycle?
- *LH stimulation ruptures the Graafian follicle and release of oocyte from ovary into the fallopian tube
- *Fimbriae of fallopian tube picks up the ovulated oocyte
What happens in the luteal phase of the ovarian cycle?
- *LH stimulates development of Corpus Luteum from the remains of the ruptured Graafian follicle
- *Corpus Luteum secretes mostly progesterone and some estrogens
- *Progesterone prepares endometrium for possible pregnancy
What happens in the proliferative phase of the uterine cycle?
*Rising estrogen levels from the growing follicle stimulates growth of the functional layer of the uterine endometrium to 4-10 mm thickness
What happens in the secretory phase of the uterine cycle?
- *Progesterone from the corpus luteum stimulates the following:
- 1. Increased thickening of the functional layer of the endometrium to 12-18mm
- 2. Increased blood supply into the endometrium
- 3. Growth of endometrial glands and secretion of uterine milk
What happens in the mensturation phase of the uterine cycle?
- *Decline in progesterone levels cause functional layer of endometrium to be discharged resulting in vaginal bleeding called mensturation
- *Mark the end of one cycle and beginning of the next
What happens if there is no pregnancy?
- *Increasing levels of progesterone cause negative feedback that inhibits LH secretions
- *After about 2 weeks without LH, corpus luteum dies and becomes corpus albicans (white body)
- *Progesterone and estrogen levels decline
- *Functional layer of endometrium discharge during the first five days of mensturation
How does the next cycle start?
- *A decline in progesterone, estrogen, and inhibin secretions occur after the corpus luteum degenerates
- *Negative feedback inhibition of GnRH, FSH, and LH stops
- *Renewed secretions of these hormones starts a new cycle of follicular growth in the ovary and endometrium layer preperation in the uterus
If fertilization occurs in the ampulla, the embryo is implanted in uterine endometrium and what hormones are secreted and what secretes them?
- *Progesterone secretion by the corpus luteum must be maintained to maintain the uterine endometrium and the pregnancy
- *LH normally maintains the corpus luteum, but LH is inhibited by the high progesterone levels secreted by the corpus luteum.
- *New hormone is secreted (hCG)
In a pregnancy what does the chorion secrete and what does it take the place of?
- Outer part of blastocyst called the chorion secretes the hormone Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG)
- hCG takes the place of LH ans maintains the corpus luteum
- After about 3-4 months of pregnancy, corpus luteum degenerates and the placenta now produces its own estrogens and progesterone to maintain the pregnancy
What are the three stages of labor?
- 1. Dilation Stage
- 2. Expulsion Stage
- 3. Placental Stage
What are the three menstural abnormalities?
- 1. Amenorrhea
- 2. Dysmenorrhea
- 3. Menopause
What is Amenorrhea?
Periodic absence of mensturation caused by hormone imbalance, extreme weight loss or low body fat as with rigorous athletic training
What is Dysmenorrhea?
Pain associated with mensturation. Severe onough to prevent normal functioning and caused by uterine tumors, ovarian cysts, endometriosis or intrauterine devices
What is menopause?
Complete cessation of menstruation and ovulation after the age of 50
What is the function of the scrotum?
Function for temperature regulation of testes by the Cremaster Muscle contraction (when cool) or relaxation (when hot)
What is the temp requirement for sperm survival?
2-3 degrees below core body temp
What surrounds the testes?
- Surrounded by a tunica vaginalis white capsule and septa that form small lobules.
- Each lobule has two seminiferous tubules where the sperm are formed
What are spermatogonia?
Stem cells that forms sperms by the process of spermatogenesis
What are sertoli cells?
Supporting cells that nurses developing sperms and form blood-testis-barrier
What are interstitial (Leydig) cells?
Endocrine cells that produces the male sex hormones called Androgens
- Spermatogonium with 2n = 46 chromosomes multiply by mitosis
- Primary spermatocytes with 2n = 46 chromosomes
- 1st meiosis produce 2 secondary spermatocytes with 23 chromosomes that become double stranded
- 2nd meiosis to 4 spermatids with 23 single stranded chromosomes
- Each spermatid develop into sperm
What are the parts of a sperm?
What is the acrosome of the sperm?
- Contains enzymes that break down the ovum wall.
- covers the nucleus
What is the nucleus of the sperm?
Nucleus contains chromosomes and DNA material
What is the midpiece of the sperm?
Midpiece contains mitrochondria for ATP generation for tail movement.
What is the tail of the sperm?
Tail is the flagellum used for movement
What controls the Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH)?
When the Hypothalamus secretes Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone, what does the anterior pituitary secrete?
- FSH follicle stimulating hormone
- LH luteinizing hormone
What does FSH do to the male reproductive system?
FSH causes Sertoli cells to secrete Androgen Binding Protein (ABP) and inhibin
What does LH do to the male reproductive system?
LH causes interstitial cells to secrete testosterone
What percent of seminal fluid comes from the seminal vesicles?
- fructose sugar, ATP and prostaglandins
What percent of seminal fluid comes from the prostate?
- milky, acidic with antibiotics
What percent of seminal fluid comes from Cowpers Glands?
What is semen?
- Mix of sperm and seminal fluid
- contains nutrients and antibiotics to protect sperm
- 60% seminal vesicles, 30% prostate, 10% Cowpers gland
- 2.5-.5ml in volume
- 50-150 million/ml
- takes 1 to fertilize
- 20 million/ml is infertile
What causes the erection?
- PNS reflex - releases nitric oxide in the penile arterioles walls
- Nitric Oxide - causes dilation of the arterioles
- Blood enters the penis compressing the veins so that the blood is trapped
- Blood Sinuses of the penis become engorge with blood and erection occurs
- SNS reflex
- muscle contractions close the internal urinary sphincter
- semen is propelled thru ductus deferens, seminal vesicles & prostate ejaculatory ducts into bulb of penis
- Cowper's Glands mucus is secreted into the urethra
- SNS reflex
- Contractions of ischiocavernosus and bulbospongiosus muscles squeeze semen out through the urethra