Reproductive System

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lkorkowski
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118573
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Reproductive System
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2011-11-29 22:40:31
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Reproductive System
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Reproductive System
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  1. How many autosomes do the human somatic cells have?
    44 autosomes
  2. How many sex chromosomes does the human somatic cells have?
    2 sex chromosomes
  3. Males are made of 46 ??
    Male 46 XY
  4. Females are made of 46 ??
    Female 46 XX
  5. What is Gametogenesis?
    • During Gametogenesis process the chromosomal number is reduced by half to produce sperms and ova
    • Male sperm 23X 23Y
    • Female ova 23X 23X
  6. Male sperm are made of 23? and 23?
    23X and 23 Y
  7. Female ova are made of 23? and 23?
    23X and 23X
  8. At fertilization the gamete cells fuse and restore to ? chromosomes?
    46 chromosomes
  9. When is the fetus sex determined?
    At fertilization
  10. What sex is produced by 46XX?
    female
  11. What sex is produced by 46XY?
    male
  12. What do Ovaries produce?
    • eggs or ova (oocytes)
    • hormones
  13. What tube transports the egg to the uterus?
    Uterine tubes
  14. Where does fetal development take place?
    In the uterus
  15. What is the female external genitalia called?
    Vulva
  16. What does the cortex (deep the capsule) of the ovary contain?
    follicles with eggs cells called oocytes
  17. The medulla of the ovary is the region in the middle containing what?
    blood vessels and lymphatics (sends nutrients for the cortical area)
  18. Where do oocytes develop?
    within the follicles
  19. What are the six stages of the ovarian follicle?
    • 1. Primordial follicle
    • 2. Primary follicle
    • 3. Secondary follicle
    • 4. Graafian follicle
    • 5. Ovulation
    • 6. Corpus albicans
  20. Describe the Primordial follicle stage?
    Single layer of squamous cells around the oocyte
  21. Describe the Primary follicle stage?
    • Many layers of cuboidal granulosa cells around the oocyte
    • Granulosa cells secrete estrogen
  22. Describe the Secondary follicle stage?
    Antral cavity filled with antral fluid
  23. Describe the Graafian follice stage?
    Follicle is mature and ready to ovulate the oocyte
  24. Describe the Ovulation stage?
    • follicle ruptures releasing the oocyte
    • (happens in a split second)
  25. Describe the Corpus albicans (stage)?
    A white scar tissue left after the corpus luteum dies.
  26. After ovulation what does the empty follicle become?
    Corpus Luteum
  27. What does the Corpus Luteum secrete?
    • 1. Progesterone
    • 2. Estrogens
    • 3. Relaxin
    • 4. Inhibin
  28. What does the Progesterone secretion from the Corpus Luteum do?
    completes the preperation of the uterine lining
  29. What does the Estrogen secretion from the Corpus Luteum do?
    works with progesterone to do their jobs better
  30. What does the Relaxin secretion from the Corpus Luteum do?
    Relaxes uterine muscles and pubic symphysis
  31. What does the Inhibin secretion from the Corpus Luteum do?
    Decreases secretion of FSH (Follicle Stimulating Hormone) and LH (Leutinizing Hormone) from the anterior pituitary
  32. What are the four functions of estrogens?
    • 1. Growth and repair of uterine lining
    • 2. Regulation of monthly female cycles
    • 3. Female secondary sexual characteristics (no facial hair, boobs, curves, all physical features)
    • 4. Maintenance of bone and muscle tissue (when menapause starts, it stops maintenance then everything gets weaker)
  33. During fetal life millions of ??? are produced by ???, but some of them degenerate (atresia) (some die).
    • oogonia
    • Mitosis
  34. Oogonia develop into imature eggs called ??? during fetal development (in ovary).
    Primary Oocytes
  35. How many Primary Oocytes are present in ovaries at birth?
    2 million - 200,000
  36. How many Primary Oocytes remain by puberty?
    40,000
  37. How many Primary Oocytes mature during a woman's reproductive life?
    400 mature
  38. How many pirmary oocytes become secondary oocytes every month but only one survives to mature and be ovulated from Graffian follicle?
    about 20
  39. What is the function of the Fimbriae of the uterine tubes?
    Sweep the oocyte into the tube
  40. What moves the oocyte along the tube?
    Cilia and peristalsis
  41. Where do sperm reach the oocyte?
    In the ampulla
  42. When does fertilization occur?
    24-48 hours after ovulation
  43. When does the zygote reach the uterus?
    about 7 days after ovulation
  44. What do the uterine tubes consist of?
    • Infundibulum - is open funnel-shaped portion near ovary
    • Fimbriae - moving finger-like processes
    • Ampulla - is central wide region of tube
    • Isthmus - Is narrowest portion joining uterus
  45. Describe the uterus.
    • 3 inches long by 2 inches wide and 1 inch thick
    • subdivided into fundus, body and cervix
    • Inferiorly contains the uterine cavity that is connected to cervical and vaginal canals
  46. What are the layer of the uterus?
    • Endometrium
    • Myometrium
    • Perimetrium
  47. What are the two layers of the Endometrium of the Uterus?
    • Functional layer -
    • lined with simple columnar epithelium,
    • stroma of connective tissue and endometrial glands
    • Shed out during menstruation
    • Basiliar layer -
    • Replace the functional layer each month
  48. What is the Myometrium of the Uterus made of?
    three layers of smooth muscle for contractions during labor and mensturation
  49. What is the Perimetrium of the Uterus?
    Visceral peritoneum membrane covering the uterus
  50. What are the mammary glands?
    Modified sweat glands that produce milk during lactation
  51. Milk secreting mammary glands olveoli open by what ducts?
    Lactiferous duct at the nipple
  52. What suspends the breast from deep fascia of the pectoral muscles?
    Suspensory ligaments or Cooper's Ligaments
  53. What are the four helpers of milk production and secretion?
    • 1. Estrogens - develop the lactiferous ducts system
    • 2. Progesterone - develop the milk-secreting glands
    • 3. Prolactin - stimulates milk synthesis in the alveoli
    • 4. Oxytocin - stimulate milk ejection from alveoli
  54. Nursing stimulates the hypothalamus to produce what hormone?
    Oxytocin
  55. What secreted Oxytocin?
    Posterior pituitary gland
  56. What does Oxytocin do to the breast?
    causes smooth muscles around the alveoli to contract and squeeze milk into lactiferous ducts, lactiferous sinuses and into the nipple
  57. Is milk ejection run by a positive or negative feedback system?
    Positive feedback
  58. The female reproductive cycle is controlled by monthly hormonal cycle from what three things?
    • Hypothalamus
    • Anterior Pituitary
    • Ovary
  59. What is the ovarian cycle?
    Changes in ovary during follicle development and after maturation of the follicle and oocyte
  60. What is the Uterine cycle?
    • Changes in uterine endometrium to reveive ovum
    • If implantation does not occur, the functional layer of endometrium is shed during mensturation
  61. Hormone regulation is controlled by the Hypothalamus secreting what?
    Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH)
  62. Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone stimulates the Anterior Pituitary to secrete what two hormones?
    • Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)
    • Luteninizing Hormone (LH)
  63. FSH and LH stimulate the ovarian cyclic secretion of what?
    Estrogen and Progesterone
  64. What do estrogens and progesterones from the ovaries do?
    Drive the uterine cyclic endometrial changes
  65. What happens in the follicular phase of the ovarian cycle?
    • *FSH from anterior pituitary stimulates follicular growth
    • *Primordial follicle grows into Graafian follicle
    • *Granulosa cells of follicle secrete estrogens and inhibin
    • *Increasing level of estrogen and inhibin inhibit FSH
    • *Increasing level of estrogen stimulate secretion of LH
  66. What happens in the ovulation phase of the ovarian cycle?
    • *LH stimulation ruptures the Graafian follicle and release of oocyte from ovary into the fallopian tube
    • *Fimbriae of fallopian tube picks up the ovulated oocyte
  67. What happens in the luteal phase of the ovarian cycle?
    • *LH stimulates development of Corpus Luteum from the remains of the ruptured Graafian follicle
    • *Corpus Luteum secretes mostly progesterone and some estrogens
    • *Progesterone prepares endometrium for possible pregnancy
  68. What happens in the proliferative phase of the uterine cycle?
    *Rising estrogen levels from the growing follicle stimulates growth of the functional layer of the uterine endometrium to 4-10 mm thickness
  69. What happens in the secretory phase of the uterine cycle?
    • *Progesterone from the corpus luteum stimulates the following:
    • 1. Increased thickening of the functional layer of the endometrium to 12-18mm
    • 2. Increased blood supply into the endometrium
    • 3. Growth of endometrial glands and secretion of uterine milk
  70. What happens in the mensturation phase of the uterine cycle?
    • *Decline in progesterone levels cause functional layer of endometrium to be discharged resulting in vaginal bleeding called mensturation
    • *Mark the end of one cycle and beginning of the next
  71. What happens if there is no pregnancy?
    • *Increasing levels of progesterone cause negative feedback that inhibits LH secretions
    • *After about 2 weeks without LH, corpus luteum dies and becomes corpus albicans (white body)
    • *Progesterone and estrogen levels decline
    • *Functional layer of endometrium discharge during the first five days of mensturation
  72. How does the next cycle start?
    • *A decline in progesterone, estrogen, and inhibin secretions occur after the corpus luteum degenerates
    • *Negative feedback inhibition of GnRH, FSH, and LH stops
    • *Renewed secretions of these hormones starts a new cycle of follicular growth in the ovary and endometrium layer preperation in the uterus
  73. If fertilization occurs in the ampulla, the embryo is implanted in uterine endometrium and what hormones are secreted and what secretes them?
    • *Progesterone secretion by the corpus luteum must be maintained to maintain the uterine endometrium and the pregnancy
    • *LH normally maintains the corpus luteum, but LH is inhibited by the high progesterone levels secreted by the corpus luteum.
    • *New hormone is secreted (hCG)
  74. In a pregnancy what does the chorion secrete and what does it take the place of?
    • Outer part of blastocyst called the chorion secretes the hormone Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG)
    • hCG takes the place of LH ans maintains the corpus luteum
    • After about 3-4 months of pregnancy, corpus luteum degenerates and the placenta now produces its own estrogens and progesterone to maintain the pregnancy
  75. What are the three stages of labor?
    • 1. Dilation Stage
    • 2. Expulsion Stage
    • 3. Placental Stage
  76. What are the three menstural abnormalities?
    • 1. Amenorrhea
    • 2. Dysmenorrhea
    • 3. Menopause
  77. What is Amenorrhea?
    Periodic absence of mensturation caused by hormone imbalance, extreme weight loss or low body fat as with rigorous athletic training
  78. What is Dysmenorrhea?
    Pain associated with mensturation. Severe onough to prevent normal functioning and caused by uterine tumors, ovarian cysts, endometriosis or intrauterine devices
  79. What is menopause?
    Complete cessation of menstruation and ovulation after the age of 50
  80. What is the function of the scrotum?
    Function for temperature regulation of testes by the Cremaster Muscle contraction (when cool) or relaxation (when hot)
  81. What is the temp requirement for sperm survival?
    2-3 degrees below core body temp
  82. What surrounds the testes?
    • Surrounded by a tunica vaginalis white capsule and septa that form small lobules.
    • Each lobule has two seminiferous tubules where the sperm are formed
  83. What are spermatogonia?
    Stem cells that forms sperms by the process of spermatogenesis
  84. What are sertoli cells?
    Supporting cells that nurses developing sperms and form blood-testis-barrier
  85. What are interstitial (Leydig) cells?
    Endocrine cells that produces the male sex hormones called Androgens
  86. Describe spermatogenesis.
    • Spermatogonium with 2n = 46 chromosomes multiply by mitosis
    • Primary spermatocytes with 2n = 46 chromosomes
    • 1st meiosis produce 2 secondary spermatocytes with 23 chromosomes that become double stranded
    • 2nd meiosis to 4 spermatids with 23 single stranded chromosomes
    • Each spermatid develop into sperm
  87. What are the parts of a sperm?
    • Acrosome
    • Nucleus
    • Midpiece
    • Tail
  88. What is the acrosome of the sperm?
    • Contains enzymes that break down the ovum wall.
    • covers the nucleus
  89. What is the nucleus of the sperm?
    Nucleus contains chromosomes and DNA material
  90. What is the midpiece of the sperm?
    Midpiece contains mitrochondria for ATP generation for tail movement.
  91. What is the tail of the sperm?
    Tail is the flagellum used for movement
  92. What controls the Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH)?
    Hypothalamus
  93. When the Hypothalamus secretes Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone, what does the anterior pituitary secrete?
    • FSH follicle stimulating hormone
    • LH luteinizing hormone
  94. What does FSH do to the male reproductive system?
    FSH causes Sertoli cells to secrete Androgen Binding Protein (ABP) and inhibin
  95. What does LH do to the male reproductive system?
    LH causes interstitial cells to secrete testosterone
  96. What percent of seminal fluid comes from the seminal vesicles?
    • 60%
    • fructose sugar, ATP and prostaglandins
  97. What percent of seminal fluid comes from the prostate?
    • 30%
    • milky, acidic with antibiotics
  98. What percent of seminal fluid comes from Cowpers Glands?
    • 10%
    • mucus
  99. What is semen?
    • Mix of sperm and seminal fluid
    • contains nutrients and antibiotics to protect sperm
    • 60% seminal vesicles, 30% prostate, 10% Cowpers gland
    • 2.5-.5ml in volume
    • 50-150 million/ml
    • takes 1 to fertilize
    • 20 million/ml is infertile
  100. What causes the erection?
    • PNS reflex - releases nitric oxide in the penile arterioles walls
    • Nitric Oxide - causes dilation of the arterioles
    • Blood enters the penis compressing the veins so that the blood is trapped
    • Blood Sinuses of the penis become engorge with blood and erection occurs
  101. Describe emission.
    • SNS reflex
    • muscle contractions close the internal urinary sphincter
    • semen is propelled thru ductus deferens, seminal vesicles & prostate ejaculatory ducts into bulb of penis
    • Cowper's Glands mucus is secreted into the urethra
  102. Describe ejaculation.
    • SNS reflex
    • Contractions of ischiocavernosus and bulbospongiosus muscles squeeze semen out through the urethra

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