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2011-11-22 20:57:50
Lymphatic System

Lymphatic System
Show Answers:

  1. What system?
    Organs, vessels and a fluid called lymph– similar to interstitial fluid (means clear water)
    Lymphatic System
  2. What organs are involved in the lymphatic system?
    • – red bone marrow
    • – thymus
    • – spleen
    • – lymph nodes
    • – lymph nodules
    • • tonsils, adenoids & peyers patches
  3. What are the 3 main functions of the lymphatic system?
    • •Draining excess interstitial fluid & plasma proteins from tissue spaces
    • • Transporting dietary lipids & vitamins from GI tract to the blood
    • • Facilitating immune responses
  4. What function of the lymphatic system is it?:
    Recognize microbes or abnormal cells & responding by killing them directly or secreting antibodies that cause their destruction
    Facilitating immune responses
  5. Capillaries that begin as closed-ended tubes found in spaces between cell combine to form ____________ ______
    Lymphatic Vessels
  6. Resemble veins with thinwalls & more valves
    Lymphatic vessels
  7. Fluid flows through lymph nodes towards large veins above the heart
    – lymph emptied into bloodstream (subclavian veins)
    Lymphatic circulation
  8. Found throughout thebody except in avascular tissue (cartilage, epidermis& cornea)
    Lymphatic capillaries
  9. Lymphatic capillaries:
    How is the structure designed to let tissue fluid in but not out?
    • anchoring filaments keep tubefrom collapsing under outside pressure
    • overlapping endothelial cells open when tissue pressure is high (one-way valve)
  10. Lymphatic capillaries in GI tract, are known as ______
  11. What is collected by lymphatic capillaries & returned to the blood?
    Fluid & proteins escaping from vascular capillaries
  12. What promotes flow of lymphatic fluid?
    Respiratory movements & muscular contractions
  13. Vessels unite to form _________ & _________ ______
    trunks; thoracic ducts
  14. What body areas empty into right lymphatic duct? The rest of body empties into thoracic duct (cysterna chyli)
    Right side head, arm & chest
  15. Where is lymph dumped?
    Directly into left and right subclavian veins
  16. Immune System and Lymphatic Tissue:
    Form the main defense cells of the immune system
  17. What are the two main types of lymphocytes?
    • B lymphocytes
    • T lymphocytes
  18. What type of lymphocytes
    -produced and mature in the bone marrow
    -produce antibodies against specific antigens on foreign cells
    B lymphocytes
  19. What type of lymphocytes are
    -produced in the bone marrow but mature and proliferate in the Thymus gland
    -attack foreign cells and program cell death
    T lymphocytes
  20. Attack foreign cells and are short-lived
    Effector cells
  21. Remain in system long time and provide rapid response to foreign cell (form the basis for vaccinations)
    Memory cells
  22. Provide environment for stem cells to divide & mature into B and T lymphocytes
    Primary lymphatic organs
  23. What gives rise to mature B cells?
    Red bone marrow
  24. Site where pre-T cells from red marrow mature (newborn and young adult)
    Thymus gland
  25. – site where most immune responses occur
    • lymph nodes, spleen & lymphatic nodules
    Secondary lymphatic organs & tissues
  26. What are the 5 types of lymphatic tissue?
    • 1. Diffuse lymphatic tissue (diffuse lymph cells)
    • 2. Aggregated lymphatic nodules (lymphatic nodules-clusters of lymphatic cells, nonencapsulated)
    • 3. Lymph nodes (encapsulated clusters of lymph cells and blood vessels)
    • 4. Spleen
    • 5. Thymus Gland
  27. Concentrations of lymphatic tissue not surrounded by a capsule scattered throughout connective tissue of mucous membranes
    Lymphatic Nodules
  28. Examples of Lymphatic Nodules
    • • Peyer’s patches in the ileum of the small intestine
    • • Appendix
    • • Tonsils form ring at top of throat
  29. What are 3 parts of the tonsils?
    • 1. Adenoids (pharyngeal tonsil)
    • 2. Palatine tonsils (on each side wall)
    • 3. Lingual tonsil in the back of the tongu
  30. Bean-shaped organs, up to 1 inch long, located along lymphatic vessels
    Lymph Nodes
  31. Scattered throughout body but concentrated near mammary glands, axillae & groin
    Lymph Nodes
  32. Is capsule, trabeculae & reticular fibers
  33. Parenchyma is divided into 2 regions:
    • Cortex
    • Medulla
  34. Which region of the parenchyma:
    • lymphatic nodules with germinal centers containing dendritic cells– antigen-presenting cells and macrophages
    • B cells proliferate into antibody-secreting plasma cells
    • T cells enter, proliferate and leave lymph node
  35. Which region of the parenchyma:
    • contains B cells & plasma cells in medullary cords
  36. • Characteristic of malignant tumors
    • Spread of disease from one organ to another– cancer cells travel via blood or lymphatic system– cells establish new tumors where they lodge
  37. How can secondary tumor site be predicted?
    By direction of lymphatic flow from primary site
  38. Lymph nodes that are firm, enlarged and nontender
    Cancerous lymph nodes
  39. Nodes that are not firm and are very tender
    Infected lymph nodes
  40. Organ between stomach & diaphragm
  41. Spleen:
    Contains blood & lymphatic vessels
  42. Spleen:
    Consists of capsule, trabeculae, fibers & fibroblasts
  43. Consists of white pulp and red pulp
  44. What type of spleen pulp is lymphatic tissue (lymphocytes & macrophages), B cell proliferation and plasma cell formation
    White pulp
  45. What type of spleen pulp is venous sinuses (filled with blood & macrophages)
    Red pulp
  46. Spleen:
    Carry out phagocytosis of bacteria and worn out RBCs and platelets
  47. Large organ in infants but atrophied in adult
    2 lobed organ located in mediastinum
    Thymus Gland
  48. Capsule & trabeculae divide it into lobules (connective tissue)
    Thymus gland
  49. Each lobule has cortex &medulla
    Thymus gland
  50. – tightly packed T lymphocytes (proliferation and maturation)
    – Macrophages and epithelial cells-produce thymic hormon
    Cortex of the Thymus Gland
  51. Mature T cells and patches of dead cells (thymic corpuscles)
    Medulla of the Thymus Gland