Microbiology Compend-Final

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Microbiology Compend-Final
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Microbiology Compend Final
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Microbiology Compend-Final
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  1. Vaccines immunity
    Active
  2. Placental transfer of antibodies immunity
    Natural acquired passive
  3. Serum derived from animal that has been immunized to infectious disease and used to confer immunity to others (humans)
    Antiserum
  4. Foreign protein, when introduced into body, excites body cells to produce antibodies against itself
    Antigen
  5. Acquired immunity results from inoculation of immune serum
    Artificially acquired passive
  6. Lack of resistance to specific diesase
    Susceptibility
  7. Substances produced by body cells, combat foreign proteins introduced into living body
    Antibodies
  8. Antibodies that inactivate invading bacterial cells by causing cells to form clumps
    Agglutinins
  9. Immunity conferred after birth
    Acquired
  10. Immunity inherited
    Innate
  11. Immunity results from inoculation of toxoid
    Artificially acquired active
  12. Causative agent of disease modified in manner that will no longer cause disease but will promote production of antibodies
    Vaccine
  13. Highly developed state of resistance to specific disease
    Immunity
  14. Organisms responsible for infection epidemic meningitis exit from host by means of
    Droplet spray
  15. Infections caused by members of genus Salmonella primarilly transmitted by
    Ingestion
  16. Portal of entry of Salmonella typhi
    Mouth
  17. Ophthalmia neonatorum is infection caused by member of genus
    Neisseria
  18. Endospore formation is characteristic of members of genus
    Clostridium
  19. Lockjaw
    Tetanus
  20. Gas gangrene and tissue gas is caused by
    Clostridium perfringens
  21. Local skin abscesses usually caused by members of genus
    Staphylococcus
  22. Vibro cholerae, responsible for infection called
    Asiatic cholera
  23. High lipid content of cell wall organism
    Mycobacterium tuberculosis
  24. Pertussis
    Whooping cough
  25. Rabbit fever
    Tularemia
  26. Puerperal sepsis
    Childbed fever
  27. Exptoxin producer
    Clostridium perfringens
  28. Septic sore throat
    Streptococcus pyogenes
  29. Disease caused by infection entering body through unbroken skin
    Tularemia
  30. Endospore formation characteristic of
    Bacillus anthracis
  31. Streptococcus pyogenes
    Rheumatic fever
  32. Veneral disease
    Treponema pallidum
  33. Weil's disease
    Infectious jaundice
  34. Silver nitrate prophylaxis once used for control of
    Ophthalmia neonatorum
  35. Portal of entry of Streptococcus pneumoniae
    Nose and mouth
  36. Antibodies cause clumping of antigenic substances
    Agglutinins
  37. Capable of forming capsules when living as parasites
    Streptococcus pneumoniae
  38. NOT play part in transmission of salmonellosis
    Respiratory discharges
  39. Caused by spiral-shaped organism
    Syphilis
  40. Syphilis
    Treponema pallidum
  41. Septic sore throat
    Coccus
  42. Puerperal sepsis occurs in
    Female reproductive tract
  43. Presence of free oxygen, can live in absence
    Facultative anaerobes
  44. Temp. which bacteria grow best
    Optimum temp.
  45. Organism can utilize inorganic matter as food
    Autotrophic
  46. Prefers dead inorganic material, can obtain nourishment from living organic material
    Facultative parasite
  47. Spore forming bacteria currently contain spores
    Sporulating
  48. Bacteria that grow best as moderate temp.
    Mesophilic bacteria
  49. Lowest temp. which growth for species will take place
    Minimum temp.
  50. Highest temp. which growth for species will take place
    Maximum temp.
  51. Grows and reproduces best in presence of oxygen, can grow and reproduce in absence
    Facultative anaerobe
  52. pH is measurement of
    Alkalinity
  53. NOT characterisitc of viruses
    Obligate saprophytes
  54. Bacteria usually reproduce by
    Binary fission
  55. Organism is acid fast positive
    Mycobacterium
  56. Bacteria grow best at high temp.
    Thermophilic
  57. "True fungi"
    Yeast
  58. Study of smallest microscopic life forms
    Virology
  59. Self digestion of tissue by enzymes of own formation
    Autolysis
  60. Structure functions to protect organism and enhance virulence
    Capsule
  61. Structure contains material in inheritance
    Nucleic acid
  62. May be capable of forming spores
    Bacilli
  63. Spherical shape
    Cocci
  64. Rod-shaped
    Bacilli
  65. Study of true fungi
    Mycology
  66. Animal or plant of microscopic size
    Microorganism
  67. Eucaryotic, true fungi, reproduce by budding
    Yeasts
  68. Cocci, bacilli, and spitilla are shapes of
    Bacteria
  69. Molds
    Multicellular
  70. Single cell
    Unicellular
  71. Mocroscopic one-celled animals
    Protozoa
  72. Micrometer equal to
    1/25000 of an inch
  73. Classified as venereal disease
    Lymphogranuloma venereum
  74. Contain nuclear bodies
    Procaryotic
  75. Most common mode of transmission for tuberculosis
    Droplet spray
  76. Cytoplasm of typical eucaryotic cell is separated from nucleus by
    Nuclear membrane
  77. Material of inheritance is contained within
    Nuclear body
  78. Basic unit from which organisms are made
    Cell
  79. Association of two organisms that is detrimental to one
    Antibiosis
  80. Enzyme produced in bacterial cell but retained inside cell
    Andoenzyme
  81. Visible mass of bacterial growth resulting from reproduction of single cell
    Colony
  82. Spherical shaped bacteria form grape-like clusters
    Staphylococci
  83. Spore formation is characteristic of only few species of
    Bacilli
  84. Spores are most likely to form when
    Conditions for reproduction are not favorable
  85. Presence of capsule may affect bacterium by
    Increasing virulence
  86. Bacterial spore is called endospore because
    Is formed within cell
  87. Chlamydia
    Psittacosis
  88. Size of bacteria measured in special unit called
    Micrometer
  89. Smallest unit which a living organism can survive independently
    Cell
  90. Spore forming bacteria under unfavorable conditions
    Sporulating
  91. Spore formation is characterized as
    Protective device
  92. Spore formation occurs in response to
    Unsuitable living conditions
  93. Respiratory tract is primary portal of entry for all virus diseases EXCEPT
    Rabies
  94. Monilia is used synonymously with
    Candida
  95. Viral disease primarily of man
    Mumps
  96. Most common mode of transmission for gonorrhea
    Sexual conduct
  97. Lymphogranuloma venereum
    Chlamydia
  98. Least likely to be viral
    Bubonic plague
  99. Antibodies have thus far been ineffective against most varieties or types of
    Viruses
  100. Typhus fever
    Rickettsia
  101. Transmitted from person to person by unsanitary injection procedures
    Serum hepatitis
  102. Living cells for growth
    Viruses
  103. Malaria caused by
    Protozoa
  104. Rocky Mountain spotted fever
    Rickettsia rickettsii
  105. Serum hepatitis attributed to
    Exposure to blood
  106. Virus causes fever blisters or cold sores
    Herpes simplex virus
  107. Hemolysins and leucocidins
    Bacterial toxins
  108. Caused by rickettsia
    Q fever
  109. Least effective in destruction of microbes
    Cold temp.
  110. Protozoa
    Unicellular
  111. Epidemic typhus fevers transmitted by
    Lice
  112. Parrot fever
    Transmitted by air
  113. Malaria and amoebiasis caused by
    Protozoa
  114. Virus
    Strict parasite
  115. Common cold transmitted by
    Droplet spray
  116. Rabies
    Hydrophobia
  117. Rickettsia grow only as
    Parasites
  118. Rocky Mountain spotted fever caused by
    Rickettsia
  119. Q fever caused by
    Rickettsia
  120. Histoplasmosis and coccidioidomycosis caused by
    Fungi
  121. Viruses been found to be capable of infecting
    man, animals, insects
  122. Staphylococcus
    Food poisoning
  123. Ringworm caused by
    Fungus
  124. Causes disease known as thrush
    Candida
  125. Virus attacks respiratory tract
    Pneumotrophic
  126. Vaccination with cowpox virus will produce immunity to
    Variola
  127. Protozoan parasite does NOT have method for locomotion
    Sporozoa
  128. Destruction of all microorganisms and their products
    Sterilization
  129. Inhibition of bacterial growth and reproduction without necessarily destroying organisms
    Antiseptic
  130. Destruction of all pathogens and their products
    Disinfection
  131. Agent which destroys yeasts and molds
    Fungicide
  132. Agent which liberates gases or fumes for purpose of destruction of insects and microorganisms
    Fumigant
  133. Most efficient in destruction of microorganisms
    Steam under pressure
  134. Primarily bacteriostatic in its action
    Cold
  135. Most often diagnosed viral infection
    Common cold
  136. Most widely applicable and effective sterilizing agent
    Heat
  137. Usual portal of entry for pneumotropic viral diseases
    Respiratory tract
  138. Free-flowing steam is about equal to
    Boiling
  139. Autoclave usually generates temp. of about
    121 degrees C.
  140. UV rays contained in direct sunlight
    Bactericidal
  141. German measles
    Rubella
  142. Virus that would have affinity for liver
    Viscerotropic
  143. Used as standard to measure efficiency of chemical disinfectants
    Phenol
  144. Quaternary ammonium compound
    Zephiran chloride
  145. Part of body affected by encephalitis
    Brain
  146. Viral disease cause lesions of skin
    Dermatropic
  147. NOT phenolic compound
    Glutaraldehyde
  148. Presence of true pathogens on inanimate objects
    Contamination
  149. Produce disease only unders favorable conditions
    Opportunists
  150. Invasion of body by macroscopic parasites
    Infestation
  151. Degree of ability of microorganism to cause disease
    Virulence
  152. Invasion of body by living mocroorganisms with subsequent multiplication and disease production
    Infection
  153. Attenuation affects pathogen by
    decreasing virulence
  154. Preference of pathogen for particular part of body
    Elective localization
  155. Infection already present in body
    Endogenous
  156. Infection has relatively short and severe course
    Acute
  157. Infection which remains confined to particular part of body
    Local
  158. Infection in one in which microorganisms or products are spread by blood or lymph throughout entire body
    General
  159. Infection which has relatively slow onset and long duration
    Chronic
  160. Infection spreads from one area of infection to set up other areas of infection in body
    Focal
  161. Infection which the causative agents enter body from outside by entering through one of the protals of entry
    Exogenous
  162. Infection which occurs in individual who already has an infection of another type
    Secondary
  163. Infection is one caused by two or more different organisms at about same time
    Mixed
  164. Condition which bactera are found in blood but not multiplying there
    Bacteremia
  165. Infection occurs in individual who has no other active infections
    Primary
  166. Infection of blood with actual growth and multiplication of pathogens in blood
    Septicemia
  167. Infection occurs as late complication of another disease and is itself actual cause of death
    Terminal
  168. Communicable disease which is constantly present to greater or lesser degree within community
    Endemic
  169. Communicable disease that attacks large number of persons in community at about same time
    Epidemic
  170. Communicable disease occurs in community only as occasional case
    Sporadic
  171. Communicable disease that has spread to more than one country
    Pandemic
  172. Poisonous substances produced by bacteria and released into surrounding medium by living cells
    Exotoxins
  173. Substances produced by baceria will destroy WBC's
    Leucocidins
  174. Substances produced by bacterial cells will destroy RBC's
    Hemolysins
  175. Poisonous substances produced by bacteria and released only when bacterial cells die and disintegrate
    Endotoxins
  176. Carrier harbors and disseminates causative agents of disease for long time following recovery from disease
    Convalescent
  177. Mode of direct disease transmission
    Droplet spray
  178. Proper term for smallpox
    Variola
  179. Transmit disease by bitting host
    Biological vectors
  180. Most likely transmit typhoid fever as mechanical vector
    Housefly
  181. Congenital disease transmission occurs through
    Placenta
  182. Inflammation is primarily
    Physiological body defense
  183. Substances produced by body in response to entry of foreign substance into body
    Antibodies
  184. Bacteria considered to be
    Procaryotic
  185. Bacteria which prefer inorganic material as source of nutrition
    Autotrophic
  186. Toxin which remains inside bacteria until bacteria disintegrates
    Endotoxin
  187. Bacterium which has high degree of pathogenicity
    Virulent
  188. Bacterium which has had virulence reduced
    Attenuated
  189. Hydrophobia is condition often associated with
    Rabies
  190. Presence of bacteria in blood with no noticable growth or reproduction
    Bacteremia
  191. Person who harbors pathogenic microbe but does not exhibit any symproms of disease
    Carrier
  192. Tuberculosis is example of
    Bacterial disease
  193. In the name Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the first name is
    Genus
  194. Prefix "staphylo" refers to organism's tendency to
    Occur in grape-like clusters
  195. Structures interfere most with phagocytosis
    Capsules
  196. Thick colorless gelatinous outer covering
    Capsule
  197. Classification for disease poliomyelitis
    Neurotropic
  198. Requires living cells for growth and reproduction
    Viruses
  199. Type of lesion most closely associated with tuberculosis
    Tuberble
  200. Highly communicable disease which is easily spread directly from person to person
    Contagious
  201. Radical immunity
    Innate immunity
  202. Substance secreted by living cell that can bring about chemical changes in another substance without undergoing any substantive change themselves
    Enzymes
  203. Invasion, multiplication and spreading of microorganisms causing harm to host
    Infection
  204. Type of pathogens cause disease under most conditions
    True pathogens
  205. For disinfection, alcohol is most effective in a
    Seventy percent solution
  206. Example of physiological defense mechanism of body against infection
    Inflammation
  207. Process of passing liquid through material with pores so small bacteria cannot pass through
    Filtration
  208. Chemical agent is member of quaternary ammonium compound family
    Benzalkonium chloride
  209. Virus most likely transmitted from host to host by unsanitary injection procedures
    Serum hepatitis
  210. Oral and vaginal thrush
    Candida albicans
  211. Rocky Mountain spotted fever
    Rickettsia
  212. Q fever
    Rickettsia
  213. Spread of microorganisms from host to host by food, milk and water
    Indirect transmission
  214. Disease not transmitted from one host to another
    Non-communicable
  215. Microorganisms that do not normally invade body of host to produce disease
    Normal flora
  216. Least effective in achieving sterile environment
    Boiling
  217. Mechanical method of sanitation is likely to be used in practive of mortuary hygiene
    Scrubbing
  218. Capable of producing enterotoxin that will cause food poisoning
    Staphylococcus
  219. Common cold transmitted by
    Droplet spray
  220. Structures that produce motility for bacterial cells
    Flagella
  221. Chemical agent described as coal-tar derivative
    Phenol
  222. Example of pathogenic protozoa
    Entamoeba histolytica
  223. Spirochetes
    Spiral-shaped microbes which move with twisting axis
  224. Gelatinous envelope that surrounds bacilli
    Capsule
  225. Where spores are formed
    Within cell cytoplasm
  226. Thin whip-like organelle of bacterial motility
    Flagellum
  227. Diplococci appear
    In pairs
  228. Optimum pH for most pathogenic bacteria
    7.4
  229. Bacterium that produces infection only when specific conditions arise
    Opportunistic pathogen
  230. Degree of ability of microbe to produce disease is measured as
    Virulence
  231. Poisonous substance produced by microorganism
    Toxin
  232. Normal flora bacteria will cause
    Endogenous infection
  233. Process of ingestion of bacteria by leukocytes
    Phagocytosis
  234. Humoral theory of immunity involves
    Antibodies
  235. "Streptococcus" describes
    Spherical cells arranged in chains
  236. NOT an effective disinfectant
    Soap
  237. Body cell known to perform process of phagocytosis
    Leukocyte
  238. Staphylococcus aureus
    Nosocomial infection
  239. Yersinia pestis
    Plague
  240. Chlamydia psittaci
    Parrot fever
  241. Varicella Zoster
    Shingles
  242. Rubella
    German measles
  243. Disease with the condition called hydrophobia
    Rabies
  244. Clostridium perfringens
    Tissue gas
  245. Francisella tularensis
    Rabbit fever
  246. Bacillus anthracis
    Anthrax
  247. Most likely to enter body through genitourinary tract
    Syphilis
  248. Pneumotropic
    Influenza
  249. Viscerotropic
    Hepatitis
  250. Chemical agent capable of killing viral organisms
    Viricide
  251. Capable of killing molds
    Fungicide
  252. Type of immunity based solely on genus and species of host
    Natural immunity
  253. Control process used to destroy something of no value
    Incineration
  254. Condition most desired by mesophilic bacteria
    Moderate temp.
  255. Agent destroys yeasts and molds
    Fungicide
  256. Agent liberates gases for purpose of destroying macroscopic life forms
    Fumigant
  257. Bacteria that grows best between temps. of 30 C and 40 C
    Mesophilic
  258. Bacteria require organic chemial compounds for nourishment
    Heterotrophic
  259. Structure providing bacterial cell with rigidity and outlining shape of cell
    Cell wall
  260. Pathogen
    Organism capable of producing disease in susceptible host
  261. Infection that occurs after another infection is already present
    Secondary infection
  262. Infection occurs with rapid onset and short duration
    Acute infection
  263. First infection that person has at any given time
    Primary infection
  264. Infection that is caused by two or more different organisms
    Mixed infection
  265. Fomite
    Coffee cup
  266. Enzyme that dissolves fibrin
    Fibrinolysin
  267. Enzymes oftem referred to as "the spreading factor"
    Hyaluronidase
  268. Enzyme destroys RBC's
    Hemolysin
  269. Enzyme causes blood plasma to clot
    Coagulase
  270. Organism upon which pathogen lives
    Host
  271. Characteristic of rickettsial organisms
    Arthropod-borne
  272. Distinguishing feature of viruses
    Intracellular parasites
  273. Epidemic parotitis
    Mumps
  274. Caused by contact with contaminated blood serum
    Hepatitis type B
  275. Virulence of pathogen
    Degree of pathogenicity
  276. Dermatomycosis
    Epidermophyton
  277. Dysentery
    Entamoeba histolytica
  278. Varicella cirus
    Chickenpox
  279. Movement of bacteria through medium
    Motility
  280. Relationship between two organisms in which neither can survive independent of the other
    Symbiotic
  281. Replationship between two organisms in which one is detrimental to other
    Antagonistic
  282. Microb known to produce endotoxin
    Salmonella typhi
  283. Study of all microscopic life forms
    Microbiology
  284. "Comma" shaped
    Vibrio cholera
  285. Protozoan parasite
    Amoebic dysentery
  286. Reproduce by budding
    Fungi
  287. Rod-shaped, form chain-like arrangements
    Streptobacilli
  288. Substance most specific in antimicrobial action
    Antibodies
  289. Mutually advantageous symbiotic relationship between two organisms
    Mutualism
  290. Condition produced by application of antiseptic
    Bacteriostatic
  291. Synonymous with bacteriostatic
    Antiseptic
  292. Ultraviolet rays of sunlight
    Bactericidal
  293. Cogenital disease transmission occurs through
    Placenta
  294. Why are UV rays lethal to bacteria
    Damage DNA or RNA of microbe
  295. "Lockjaw"
    Tetanus
  296. Acne, boils, and pus formation on skin
    Staphylococcus aureus
  297. Inplication of sterilization
    Render an object free of all living organisms
  298. Inflammation of middle ear caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae
    Otitis media
  299. Entrance into host by means of deep puncture wound
    Tetanus
  300. Synonymous term for rabbit fever
    Tularemia
  301. Spirochete
    Syphilis
  302. Lobar pneumonia
    Streptococcus pneumoniae
  303. Treponema pallidum
    Syphilis
  304. Streptococcus pyogenes
    Puerperal fever
  305. Clostridium perfringens
    Gas gangrene
  306. Vibrio cholerae
    Asiatic cholera
  307. Yersinia pestis
    Plague
  308. Naturally acquired active
    Case of diphtheria
  309. Narually acquired passive
    Placental transmission of antibodies
  310. Innate immunity
    Inherited immunity
  311. Artificially acquired active
    Introduction of an antigen
  312. Artificially acquired passive
    Introduction of an antibody
  313. Gonorrhea
    Respiratory infection
  314. Furuncles
    Skin abscess
  315. Salmonellosis
    Food infection
  316. Tuberculosis
    Respiratory infection
  317. Tetanus
    Non-communicable infection
  318. Best pH for pathogens
    Slightly alkaline
  319. Best pH for non-pathogens
    Neutral
  320. Psychrophiles
    Low temp.
  321. Mesophiles
    Moderate temp.
  322. Thermophiles
    High temp.
  323. Protozoa
    Smallest animals
  324. Yeasts and Molds
    True fungi
  325. Bacteria
    False fungi
  326. Viruses
    Not visible using light microscope
  327. Rickettsia
    Intermediate in size between viruses and bacteria
  328. Cytoplasm
    Protoplasm found outside nucleus
  329. Protoplasm
    Material of which all living cells are composed
  330. Nuclear material
    Material of inheritance
  331. Capsule
    Enhances virulence, found outside cell
  332. Endospore
    Protective device found inside cell
  333. Sarcinae
    Exists in packets of eight
  334. Staphylococci
    Exist in clusters
  335. Tetrads
    Exists in packets of four
  336. Diplococci
    Exist in pairs
  337. Streptococci
    Reproduce in single plane to form chains
  338. Germination
    Return to vegetative state
  339. Bacterial spore
    Most resistant life form
  340. Vegitative
    Bacteria which do not form spores
  341. Adverse
    Unfavorable living conditions
  342. Procaryotic
    Bacteria that contain no organized nuclei
  343. Heterotrophic bacteria
    Utilize organic material as food
  344. Authotrophic bacterial
    Utilize inorganic material as food
  345. Psychrophilic bacteria
    Prefer low temp.
  346. Commensalism
    Advantageous to one without injury to other
  347. Symbiosis
    Advantageous to both organisms
  348. pH fo 7
    Alkline
  349. pH of 9
    Acidic conditions
  350. pH of 5
    Acidic
  351. Plasmolysis
    Hypertonic solution
  352. Plasmoptysis
    Hypotonic solution
  353. Psychrophilic
    Low temp.
  354. Mesophilic bacteria
    Moderate temp.
  355. Symbiosis
    Mutually advantageous association
  356. Antibiosis
    Detrimental to one organism
  357. Synergism
    Both can survive independently
  358. Facultative parasite
    Prefers DEAD organic matter as food source
  359. Facultative saprophyte
    Usually utilize LIVING organic matter as food source
  360. Facultative aerobe
    Prefers living in ABSENCE of oxygen
  361. Facultative anaerober
    Usually lives in PRESENCE of oxygen
  362. Simple binary fission
    Typical method of bacterial reproduction
  363. Micrometer
    Unit of bacterial measurement
  364. Saprophytes
    Organisms that ordinarily live on dead organic material
  365. Motility
    True bacterial movement
  366. Exotoxin
    Toxin secreted by living organism into surrounding medium
  367. Anaerobe
    Organisms which grow best in absence of free oxygen
  368. Chickenpox
    Varicella
  369. Measles
    Rubeola
  370. Murine typhus
    Insect vector
  371. Epidemic parotitis
    Mumps
  372. Herpes virus
    Fever blisters
  373. Rickettsia
    Typhus fever
  374. Entamoeba
    Dysentery
  375. Candida
    Yeast
  376. Tinea
    Ringworm
  377. Psittacosis
    Parrot fever
  378. Hepatitis A
    Infectious (person to person)
  379. Mumps
    Epidemic parotitis
  380. Amoeba
    Irregular undefined shape
  381. Mold
    Hyphae and Mycelium
  382. Hepatitis B
    Contact with serum
  383. Sterilazition
    Kills all microorgamisms
  384. Disinfection
    Kills pathogenic bacteria
  385. Bacteriostasis
    Retards bacterial growth and reproduction
  386. Viricide
    Kills viruses
  387. Fungicide
    Kills fungi
  388. Incineration
    Burning
  389. Boiling
    100 degrees Centigrade
  390. Steam under pressure
    121 degrees Centigrade
  391. Cold temps.
    Primarily bacteriostatic
  392. Direct sunlight
    UV rays
  393. Iodine
    Halogen
  394. Carbolic acid
    Phenol
  395. Calcium hypochlorite
    Chlorinated lime
  396. Zephiram
    Quaternary ammonium compound
  397. Ethylene oxide
    Used as gaseous disinfectant
  398. Attenuation
    Decrease in virulence
  399. Virulence
    Measure of pathogenicity
  400. Elective localization
    Tissue affinity
  401. Host
    Organism upon which parasite lives
  402. Infestation
    Invasion by macroparasites
  403. Hemolysin
    Destroys RBC's
  404. Leucocidin
    Destroys WBC's
  405. Hyaluronidase
    Spreading factor
  406. Fibrinolysin
    Dissolves fibrin
  407. Coagulase
    Causes blood to clot
  408. Convalescent carrier
    Harbors pathogens during normal recovery period
  409. Passive carrier
    Harbors and disseminates pathogens without having had disease
  410. Active case
    Exhibits disease symptoms
  411. Active carrier
    Harbors pathogens for long time following recovery
  412. Intestinal carrier
    Discharges pathogens in fecal matter
  413. Congenital transmission
    Placental transmission
  414. Mosquito
    Biological vector
  415. Inanimate object
    Fomite
  416. Housefly
    Mechanical vector
  417. Droplet spray
    Sneezing
  418. Exogenous infection
    Caused by organisms from outside body
  419. Endogenous infection
    Caused from organisms which normally reside inside body
  420. Local infection
    Confined to particular area of body
  421. Focal infection
    Spreads from primary site to secondary sites
  422. General infection
    Systemic infection
  423. Acute infection
    Rapid onset and short course
  424. Chronic infection
    Slow onset and long duration
  425. Primary infection
    Only active infection present
  426. Secondary infection
    Infection occuring when another is already present
  427. Mixed infection
    Caused by two different organisms
  428. Endemic
    Usually present to degree in community
  429. Epidemic
    Attacks large number of people in short time
  430. Sporadic
    Occurs only as occasional case
  431. Pandemic
    Spreads to more than one country
  432. Pathogenic
    Ability to cause disease

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